The Great Globalization Debate. PS 314 Spring 2006. General Points:. The concept is not new: but the term is (first used in the 1970’s) Debate intensified by two events: (a) collapse of communism and (b) technological revolution
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The concept is not new: but the term is (first used in the 1970’s)
Debate intensified by two events: (a) collapse of communism and (b) technological revolution
No one ideological "orthodoxy" (both positive and negative views are shared across conservatism, liberalism and socialism)
It is hard to find one generally shared definition of globalization
However, uses of the term encompass things like "interconnectedness" and "enmeshed societies".
A major part of the debate (even among those who believe that it is one of the principal features of modern society; is it a useful concept for understanding the world around us?
Skeptics are often either Marxists or "realists" (power theorists).
What is the "global" in globalization? It is not spatial, cannot be taken literally. And if not, then is it useful? What is the difference between the "global" and the international or the transnational?
Sovereignty (political power):
Skeptics argue that the traditional concept of sovereignty still explains and predicts
National cultures persist (and, indeed, for some they have actually become more, not less, salient)
National economies and markets are still the fundamental building blocks of the global marketplace
Why has inequality risen over the claimed period of globalization?
One line of reasoning posits that inequalities in the global marketplace are a result of traditional capitalism, not globalization. This argument has a long lineage in Marxist analysis, but has been modified by non-Marxists in the form of dependency theory.
Others would argue that these inequalities stem from the traditional allocation of power in the international state system. Again, this line of thought has a pretty long lineage (we might trace it back to Adam Smith, for example), but we would associate it today with neo-realism (and even more recently with neo-Conservatism).
The camp is rather politically and ideologically diverse
The Manifestation of Globalization:
Contemporary globalization is spatially and historically distinct
In addition, it reflects real political, economic, and cultural changes that have given rise to new forms of organization and new institutions
It is not just technological, but has a very real social dimension
Argue that sovereignty is not the central explanatory concept in the new globalization era; the sovereignty of the state has been challenged by a multitude of actors and institutions.
National Culture is breaking down, and being replaced by regional and global ‘superidentities’
The traditional phenomenon of "economic sovereignty" is disappearing.
Some see globalization as a prime creator of new kinds of global inequality – quantitative and qualitative - between and across nations (the “race to the bottom”)
Optimists argue that globalization is economically successful; some suggest that it needs to be accompanied by "political globalization" (world government?) if we are to eradicate inequalities (the “rising tide lifts all boats”)