the wayfarer modular navigation payload for intelligent robot infrastructure
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The Wayfarer Modular Navigation Payload for Intelligent Robot Infrastructure

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The Wayfarer Modular Navigation Payload for Intelligent Robot Infrastructure Brian Yamauchi [email protected] Autonomous Urban Recon Critical Army need Daily casualties during patrols Hazards Snipers Improvised explosive devices RPGs Teleop is not enough Limited comms range

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Presentation Transcript
autonomous urban recon
Autonomous Urban Recon
  • Critical Army need
  • Daily casualties during patrols
  • Hazards
    • Snipers
    • Improvised explosive devices
    • RPGs
  • Teleop is not enough
    • Limited comms range
    • Line-of-sight restrictions
    • Limited bandwidth
modular navigation infrastructure
Modular Navigation Infrastructure

PackBot ►

FCS SUGV

Wayfarer Modular Navigation Payload

◄ R-Gator

wayfarer objectives
Wayfarer Objectives
  • Focused, applied research project
  • Develop technology to enable small UGVs to perform autonomous recon missions
  • Enable small UGVs to:
    • Navigate autonomously down urban streets
    • Record digital video (EO/IR) and build map
    • Return autonomously to starting point
    • Provide video log and map to warfighters
urban reconnaissance missions
Urban Reconnaissance Missions
  • Perimeter Recon
    • Follow outside wall of building
  • Route Recon
    • Follow current street for specified distance
  • Street Recon
    • Follow GPS waypoints and street directions
  • Record EO/IR video and build map
  • Return to starting point
wayfarer sensors
Wayfarer Sensors
  • SICK LD OEM 360-degree planar LADAR
  • Point Grey Bumblebee stereo vision system
  • Organic GPS receiver
  • Crossbow six-axis IMU
  • Color and low-light B/W video cameras
  • Indigo Omega FLIR camera
  • Swiss Ranger 3D flash LADAR
scaled vector field histogram svfh
Scaled Vector Field Histogram (SVFH)
  • Extension of Borenstein & Koren’s Vector Field Histogram (VFH) obstacle avoidance
  • VFH: Map each range reading from sensors to corresponding polar coordinate sector
  • SVFH: Spread each reading to vote for all sectors within an arc length inversely proportional to range:

q = k / r

q: arc length (radians),

k: constant (0.4), r: range (meters)

svfh hallway example
SVFH Hallway Example

SVFH Bins

Clear Vectors

svfh intersection example
SVFH Intersection Example

SVFH Bins

Clear Vectors

perimeter following
Perimeter Following
  • Detect and follow building walls
  • Hough Transform
    • Detects linear features in range data
    • Finds building walls and other street-aligned features (e.g. cars, curbs)
    • Collects votes to determine current wall heading
  • Integrated with obstacle avoidance
hallway wall detection
Hallway Wall Detection

All Lines

Best Line

intersection wall detection
Intersection Wall Detection

All Lines

Best Line

outdoor perimeter detection
Outdoor Perimeter Detection

Wall Tracking

Landscape Tracking

autonomous mapping
Autonomous Mapping
  • Build occupancy grid map on robot
  • Transmit local region back to OCU to minimize bandwidth usage
  • Runs in parallel with navigation and avoidance
  • Robot can travel beyond communications range and return with a map
  • Can also run in background during teleoperation
localization
Localization
  • Heading tracking using Hough transform
    • Track orientation of linear features
    • Use to estimate robot orientation
  • Alternative approaches
    • Scan matching
    • GPS/Compass/INS
    • Kalman filters
    • Particle filters (Monte Carlo SLAM)
future work
Future Work
  • Outdoor testing of perimeter following
  • Street following
  • GPS-based street navigation
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Wayfarer will provide autonomous urban navigation technology for man-portable UGVs
  • By September 2005, we will have two fully-operational Wayfarer UGV prototypes able to perform urban reconnaissance missions
  • Wayfarer navigation payload will provide intelligent navigation infrastructure for PackBots and R-Gators, as well as FCS SUGV and other UGVs
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