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Ronald Reagan. Speech to National Association of Evangelicals: “Evil Empire” speech, March 10, 1983. Reagan’s View of the USSR. Alexander Haig 1981-1982. George Shultz 1982-1989. Realist Secretaries of State. The Problems. Third Wave of Marxism Viet Nam Syndrome Decade of Neglect.

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Speech to National Association of Evangelicals: “Evil Empire” speech, March 10, 1983

Reagan’s View of the USSR


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Alexander Haig

1981-1982

George Shultz

1982-1989

Realist Secretaries of State


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The Problems

  • Third Wave of Marxism

  • Viet Nam Syndrome

  • Decade of Neglect


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1. Third Wave of Marxism

  • Cambodia, Viet Nam

  • Angola, Ethiopia, Mozambique

  • Afghanistan

  • Nicaragua and leftist revolution in El Salvador



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Solution to Third Wave: Reagan Doctrine

Nicaragua

Contras


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Afghanistan

Mujahadin


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Angola

  • UNITA’s Jonas Savimbi


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2. Viet Nam Syndrome

  • Fall of Saigon, April 29, 1975





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3. Decade of Neglect

From: ARMING AMERICA: Attention and Inertia in U.S. National Security Spending http://dept.lamar.edu/polisci/TRUE/True_art_tlp.html


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Soviet ICBMs 1980s-90s

  • From, US Dept of Defense, Soviet Military Power, 1987: http://www.fas.org/irp/dia/product/smp_87_ch2.htm


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Solution to Decade of Neglect

  • Source: Center for Defense Information 2004 Yearbook (http://www.mtholyoke.edu/~jephrean/classweb/United%20States.html)


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Strategic Defense Initiative

Reagan’s SDI speech, March 23, 1983

From: http://www.milnet.com/pentagon/spacecom/sdi.gif




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Anastasio Somoza

Pres. of Nicaragua

Daniel Ortega, leader of the Sandinistas

Revolution in Nicaragua



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Key Phrase of 2ndBoland Amendment: (1984-1986)

''No funds available to the Central Intelligence Agency, the Department of Defense or any other agency or entity of the United States involved in intelligence activities may be obligated or expended for the purpose or which would have the effect of supporting, directly or indirectly, military or paramilitary operations in Nicaragua by any nation, group, organization, movement or individual.'‘

From: NY TIMES on line: http://www.nytimes.com/1987/07/16/world/iran-contra-hearings-text-of-key-amendment.html?pagewanted=1; For Excerpts and explanation, from US Government Accountability Office – GAO, http://redbook.gao.gov/14/fl0067296.php


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Contra Scandal

Private US $

Foreign Gov’t $

Contras

Swiss bank

accounts;

controlled

by Oliver North

of NSC Staff


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Some Congressional Restrictions on Arms Sales in 1980s

Arms Export Control Acts

  • No arms sales to nations determined to be sponsors of terrorism (US State Dept determines which nations fit into this category; it included Iran)

  • No arms sales of over $25 m in value without congressional approval (1974); A 1976 bill lowered this to $14 m for sophisticated weaponry and $50 m for other items

    • Both the House and Senate would have to reject the arms sales


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The Iran Contra Scandal

Contras

Private US $

Foreign Gov’t $

$$$

Hostages

weapons

weapons

Swiss bank

accounts;

controlled

by North

Iran

US

Israel


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The Fight Over the Contras

William Adm. John Lt. Col.

Casey Poindexter Oliver North


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Big Picture Issue

Congress has the power to restrict US government spending

Can the President ignore those restrictions?

Can President ignore aspects of law President does not agree with?

If so, does Congress have any role to shape foreign policy?

If so, do we have checks and balances?


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The End of the Cold War

Leonid Yuri Konstantin

Brezhnev Andropov Chernenko

1964-1982 1982-1984 1984-1985


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New Soviet Leadership

General Secretary

Mikhail Gorbachev

Foreign Minister

Eduard Shevardnadze


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Gorbachev’s New Thinking

Perestroika: Restructuring

Glasnost: Openness

Foreign Policy

1987: Intermediate Nuclear Force (INF) Treaty

1990: Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty

1991: Strategic Arms reduction Treaty (START) Treaty




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August 1991and the Fall of USSR

Boris Yeltsin


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Why did the USSR collapse?

Why did the Cold War end?


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