Rhino Nutrition Update AAZK, 2005 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Rhino nutrition update aazk 2005 l.jpg
Download
1 / 48

Rhino Nutrition Update AAZK, 2005. Rhino TAG Nutrition Advisory Group. Ellen Dierenfeld, Chair (Sumatran) Marcus Clauss, Univ Zurich (Black) Michael Schlegel, Disney (White) Kerrin Grant, Utah State (Asiatic). Q/A from Zookeeper Survey (thanks to Dawn Strasser!!).

Related searches for Rhino Nutrition Update AAZK, 2005

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.

Download Presentation

Rhino Nutrition Update AAZK, 2005

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Rhino nutrition update aazk 2005 l.jpg

Rhino Nutrition UpdateAAZK, 2005


Rhino tag nutrition advisory group l.jpg

Rhino TAG Nutrition Advisory Group

  • Ellen Dierenfeld, Chair (Sumatran)

  • Marcus Clauss, Univ Zurich (Black)

  • Michael Schlegel, Disney (White)

  • Kerrin Grant, Utah State (Asiatic)


Q a from zookeeper survey thanks to dawn strasser l.jpg

Q/A from Zookeeper Survey (thanks to Dawn Strasser!!)

  • New nutritional concerns

  • Doses of vitamin E; how often evaluate

  • Update on White Oak pellet feed study

  • Tannins for binding iron – feed study

  • Forages: timothy vs. Alfalfa

  • Browse – length of time to feed out and still maintain nutritional/enrichment value; if root on plant, degrades less?


Q a from zookeeper survey thanks to dawn strasser4 l.jpg

Q/A from Zookeeper Survey (thanks to Dawn Strasser!!)

  • Specific foods NOT to feed?

  • Perennial ryegrass staggars

  • D toxicity?

  • Pregnancy changes in diet


Diseases with possible nutritional links black rhino l.jpg

Diseases with Possible Nutritional Links - Black Rhino

  • Hemosiderosis - mineral imbalances

  • Hemolytic anemia - vitamin E, antiox

  • Ulcerative dermatitis - glucose, amino acid, fatty acid, mineral imbalances

  • Peripheral vasculitis (IHV) - vitamin C, antiox, minerals, fatty acids

  • Overall impaired immune function


Research updates l.jpg

Research Updates:

  • Mineral Survey, Tissues & Blood

  • Novel Antioxidant Metabolism

  • Tannin Binding Salivary Proteins

  • Intake trials in Indian Rhinos

  • Field Studies:

    • Vitamin E & Fatty Acids in Native Browses

    • Serum Vitamin E in Rhinos in South Africa

    • Field Ecology Studies – South Africa, Namibia

  • New Initiatives


Minerals in rhinos l.jpg

Minerals in Rhinos

E.S. Dierenfeld (St. Louis), S. Atkinson (Muskingum College), A.M. Craig (Oregon State), K.C. Walker (Oregon State), W.J. Streich (Berlin) & M. Clauss (Zurich)

Zoo Biology 24:51-72 (2005)


Mineral highlights l.jpg

Mineral Highlights

  • Serum/plasma

    • Zoo blacks (n=34); Free-ranging (n=27)

    • Zoo whites (n=3-16); Free-ranging (n=5)

    • Indian (n=3), Sumatran (n=3)

  • Liver (21 blacks, 6 whites, 2-4 Indian & Sumatran)

  • Horse a good model of metabolism

  • Rhinos ‘er blood Ca & Se (captive only); low Na compared to equids

  • Browsers high Fe (blood & liver)

  • Browsers low Cu (liver) – grazers high

  • Liver K, Mg, Co, & Mo with age


Iron issues browsing rhinos l.jpg

Iron Issues – Browsing rhinos

  • Captives & females higher


Iron issues browsing rhinos10 l.jpg

Iron Issues – Browsing rhinos

  • Females higher, both sexes increase with age


Iron issues browsing rhinos11 l.jpg

Linked with low tannins? Antiox, increased availability of iron but not solely diet

Lack of fiber? Also can increase Fe bioavail – again, soluble CHO may be important

Influence of dietary vitamin C? (citrus effect doubtful - native browses likely high)

Iron Issues – Browsing Rhinos


Mineral interactions l.jpg

Mineral Interactions


Elevated free tyrosine in rhinoceros erytrhocytes l.jpg

Elevated Free Tyrosine in Rhinoceros Erytrhocytes

Weber, B.W., D.E. Paglia, E.H. Harley

Comp Biochem Physiol 138:105-109 (2004)


Slide14 l.jpg

Tyrosine in rhinoceros RBCs (but not plasma) 50-fold higher than humans

Also elevated in other Perissodactyla

Captives significantly lower compared to free-ranging; also variation across species

Function as antioxidant?


Tannins rhinos l.jpg

Tannins & Rhinos

M. Clauss, Munich (now Zurich); J. Gehrke, J. Fickel, & M. Lechner-Doll, Berlin; E.J. Flach, Whipsnade; E.S. Dierenfeld, WCS (now St. Louis); J.-M. Hatt, Zurich

Comp Biochem Physiol 140:67-72 (2005)


Tannin binding salivary proteins in 3 rhino species l.jpg

Salivary tannin-binding proteins (TBP) related to dietary habits – browsers highest

Compared saliva samples from grazer (white, n=9), browser (black, n=10), and mixed (Indian, n=8) feeding habits

Used hydrolyzable (tannic acid) & condensed (quebracho solution) tannin stds

Tannin-Binding Salivary Proteins in 3 Rhino Species


Tannin binding salivary proteins in 3 rhino species results l.jpg

Black rhino – bound both H & CT >> white

Indian bound H = black, CT >> black

Difference between black & white expected, results from Indian may indicate evolutionarily recent switch from browsing

Tannin-Binding Salivary Proteins in 3 Rhino SpeciesResults……..


Tannin binding salivary proteins inducible in black rhinos l.jpg

Related to dietary habits – browsers highest

Black rhinos eat tannins in nature – seasonal dietary habits might benefit from inducible mechanism.

Six animals (3 facilities) fed 3 mo:

Regular diet

Diet + 5% tannic acid pellet

Diet + 5% quebracho pellet

Tannin-Binding Salivary Proteins Inducible in Black Rhinos


Induction of tannin binding salivary proteins cont l.jpg

Significant in tannic acid-binding capacity with both tannic acid and quebracho feeding

n.s. trend for change in quebracho-binding capacity with quebracho feeding; no change with tannic acid feeding

Hydrolyzable tannins play a greater role in native environment of rhino?

HT >> CT at iron binding? Ongoing trials both in Europe & the US, with Fe balance

Induction of Tannin-Binding Salivary Proteins …. Cont.


Indian rhino nutrition zoo study l.jpg

Indian Rhino Nutrition:Zoo Study

M. Clauss, C. Polster, E. Kienzle, H.Wiesner, K. Baumgartner, F. von Houwald, W.J. Streich, E. S. Dierenfeld

Zoo Biology 24:1-14 (2005)


Aims of the study l.jpg

Aims of the Study

  • Chronic foot problems, leiomyomas – linked with excess body weight?

  • Intake, Digestion

    • difference between zoo diets

    • (Nürnberg, n=2; München, n=2; Zurich, n=3; Bronx, n=4)

    • Diets with or without concentrates

  • Mineral (Ca) metabolism

  • Water intake


Zoo diets l.jpg

Zoo Diets

  • Nürnberg

    Grass hay, grass silage, pellets,

    Fruit & vegetable, mineral biscuits

  • Munich

    Grass hay, pellets, fruit & vegetable, mineral

  • Basel

    Straw, pellets, hay cobs, fruit & vegetable

  • Bronx

    Mixed hay, pellets, (minimal) produce


Particle passage dry matter intake l.jpg

Particle Passage & Dry matter intake


Dry matter digestibility l.jpg

Dry Matter Digestibility


Dry matter digestibility crude fiber l.jpg

Dry Matter Digestibility& Crude Fiber


Results l.jpg

Results:

  • consumed 0.5-1.1% of body weight (DMI) daily

  • digestible energy 0.27-0.99 MJ DE/kg BW0 .75 (compared with est. reqt. 0.49-0.66)

  • 64% (7 of 11) consumed more energy, even on roughage-only diet

  • Water intake 30-49 mL/kg BW daily (~equid)


Results27 l.jpg

Results:

  • hay ad libitum diet is possible

    BUT

  • mineral &/or vitamin supplement needed

  • straw + concentrate diet:

    • energy provision as good as hay only diet

    • May need to restrict both concentrate & forage


Ca metabolism in rhinos l.jpg

Ca-Metabolism in Rhinos

  • Similar to horses, rabbits

  • not dependent on Vit D (?)

  • Elimination: URINE

  • Consequence:

    • Ca-stones in bladder & kidney

      (reported in rabbits, horses; never in rhino)

  • Other minerals, similar to horses


Rhino browse free ranging captive l.jpg

Rhino Browse: Free-Ranging & Captive

(n=12)

(n=4)

(n=44)

(n=11)


Forages for rhinos l.jpg

FORAGES FOR RHINOS:

  • Best nutrient ratio to duplicate browse? More grass than legume – sol CHO (in grass) impt. ??? - needs investigation

  • Good quality grass forage & proper pellet (6:1) alone can meet maintenance reqts.

  • Alfalfa NOT considered browse.

  • Browse can have enrichment value even if nutrient profiles not maintained.

  • Degradation depends on nutrient; don‘t know effect of roots – worth testing.

  • Keep as palatable as possible.


Lucerne alfalfa can be problematic l.jpg

Lucerne (Alfalfa) can be Problematic

  • High [ ] N, Ca, Mg

  • Increased hindgut pH

  • Very digestible, altered passage rate

  • Salivary buffering issues, acid/base imbalances more prevalent


Mineral imbalances due to improper forages l.jpg

Mineral Imbalances Due to Improper Forages?

  • Associated with lucerne (alfalfa) feeding – in both grazers & browsers


Grass also problematic l.jpg

Grass Also Problematic?

  • Grass staggars reported with perennial ryegrass (Bluett et al., NZ Vet J 52:48, 2004)

  • Due to fungal endophyte with alkaloids; localized in leaf base (overgrazing) and seed heads (undergrazing)

  • Clinically – tremors, lethargy, staggar, collapse

  • Test for lolitrem B (>1 mg/kg DM) or don‘t use pastures/hay containing perennial ryegrass with wild endophyte


Pregnancy diets all rhinos l.jpg

PREGNANCY DIETS (all rhinos):

  • NO increased need until last trimester & during lactation

  • Increased:

    • Calorie needs (about double)

    • protein reqts. (8-10 to 12-14%)

    • Ca (0.3 – 0.5%) and P (0.2-0.3%)

    • No other changes recommended with equine model

  • Best to alter digestibility of diet – increasing browse and/or legume forage (adds protein and Ca), possibly targeted concentrates - not double quantities per se due to physical limitations


Plasma vitamin e in free ranging black rhinos l.jpg

Plasma Vitamin E in Free-Ranging Black Rhinos

Mean = 0.86 ug/ml; similar to other studies

Ndondo et al., 2004

S Afr J Wild Rec 34:100-102


Plasma vitamin e in free ranging black rhinos37 l.jpg

Plasma Vitamin E in Free-Ranging Black Rhinos

Clauss et al., 2002


Plasma fat soluble vitamins in black rhinos l.jpg

Plasma Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Black Rhinos

Clauss et al., 2002


Vitamin e concentrations in black rhino browses l.jpg

Vitamin E Concentrations in Black Rhino Browses

Ndondo et al., 2004

Dierenfeld et al., 1995

Ghebremeskel et al., 1991


Vitamin e l.jpg

VITAMIN E:

  • Recommended doses (dietary levels) of vitamin E:

  • Based on available information, ensure all species consume diets containing at least 50 IU/kg DM – up to ~200 IU/kg.

  • Not doses per se, but if eat 1% of body mass, a 2000 kg black will eat 20 kg DM X 50 IU = 1000 IU minimal.

  • Evaluate at least annually


Vitamin d toxicity an isolated problem in 2002 l.jpg

Vitamin D Toxicity – an Isolated Problem in 2002

Manufacturer very responsive, no diet problem isolated

Miller et al., summary, 2003


Fatty acids in black rhino browses south africa l.jpg

Fatty Acids in Black Rhino Browses (South Africa)

  • Seasonal shift - increased PUFAs (C18) in winter vs spring

  • No relationship with vit E levels but essential for vit E absorption

Ndondo et al., 2004


Evidence of fa deficiency in black rhinos l.jpg

Evidence of FA Deficiency in Black Rhinos

  • Browse composition (Zimbabwe & NA temperate spp.)

  • Fresh browse - a-linolenic (n-3) 15X >> linoleic (n-6); immediate oxidation

  • Zoo vs. free-range diet - linoleic 5X, linolenic 1/3

    Grant et al., 2002, J. Wildl. Dis.; Wright, 1998


Fatty acid investigations zoo rhinos short long term l.jpg

Clinical response to dietary FA supplementation

Adding flax-based supplement altered w-3:w-6 ratios favorably

Zoo diet - opposite effects on ratio

Suedmeyer & Dierenfeld, 1998

Adipose tissue FA [ ] as measure of long-term diet effects

25% of rhinos (n=20) deficient in C18:2 (linoleic); >50% undetectable C18:3 (a-linolenic)

No free-range tissue samples as baseline

Fatty Acid Investigations - Zoo Rhinos: Short- & Long-Term

Dierenfeld & Frank, 1998


Slide45 l.jpg

  • Currently summarizing FA in rhino plasma (US and European zoos) vs. Free-ranging

  • Limit foods high in PUFAs unless adequate antioxidant (Polyphenolics? Vitamin E? Tyrosine?)

  • Concentrates higher than forages in PUFA


Ongoing captive nutrition studies rhinos l.jpg

Ongoing Captive Nutrition Studies – Rhinos:

  • White Oak Browsing Rhino pellets – added St. Louis (n=1); others?

  • Busch Gardens – diet with increased soluble CHO, beet pulp (n=3 blacks)

  • Tannin feed additives: US and Europe – no updates submitted

  • Sumatran rhino feeding trial – Los Angeles – seasonal intake/digestion trials

  • Rhino Browse/Diet Database?


Ongoing nutrition field studies black rhinos l.jpg

Ongoing Nutrition Field Studies – Black Rhinos:

  • Stephane Helary – University of Witwatersrand, South Africa. N. Owen-Smith, advisor. IRF initially funded

    • Earthwatch project – Waterberg Plateau, Namibia, also examining South African sites

    • Quantifying Fe, tannins, minerals & natural chelators, possibly ascorbic acid

    • Feed plants, feces

    • Different ecosystems, different seasons


Irf rfp 2005 priority target areas with possible nutrition component s l.jpg

IRF RFP 2005 - Priority Target Areas with Possible Nutrition Component(s):

  • Dietary/Nutritional links with disease or susceptibility

  • Dietary links with reproduction

  • Nutritional links with male sex skew


  • Login