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Rapid Intervention Team & MAYDAY Procedures

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Rapid Intervention Team & MAYDAY Procedures

WHY

4/10/2002


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SCOPE

This SOP meets or exceeds the intent of applicable sections within Chapter 6, Emergency Operations, of NFPA 1500, Standards on Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health Program. It also intends to meet requirements of the OSHA Respirator Protection Standard 1910.134 and OSHA 2 in/2 out Rule 308-134e.

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Purpose

The purpose of this Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) is to outline the procedures for members entering an IDLH atmosphere or working in and environment recognized to be unstable.

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Purpose

  • Personnel assigned to perform this function will be designated as the Rapid Intervention Team (RIT).

  • The composition and structure of the RIT shall be flexible depending on the type, size and complexity of the incident.

  • Level 1 RIT will consist of no less than two trained members.

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DEFINITIONS: IDLH

  • Immediately dangerous to life or health

  • Oxygen level below 19.5%

  • Lower explosive limits in excess of 10%

  • Toxins in excess of the Permissible Exposure Level

  • Confined space, collapse or any other situation recognized to be unstable and could cause injury.

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DEFINITIONS: IDLH

  • An atmosphere that poses an immediate threat to life

  • Would cause irreversible adverse health effects or would impair an individual’s ability to escape from a dangerous atmosphere.

  • The interior of a structure involved in fire, beyond the incipient stage, is considered IDLH atmosphere.

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Incipient Stage Fire:

  • A fire in the initial stage

  • Can be controlled or extinguished using portable extinguishers, or small hose systems

  • Without the need for protective clothing or self-contained breathing apparatus.

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Personal Accountability Report (PAR)

  • Report given to Command or Operations that all members of the crew are accounted for.

  • Periodically completed to check on personnel.

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Personal Accountability Report (PAR)

Example

“Accountability to unit 3352W PAR?”

“Unit 3352W to Accountability we are PAR w/four.”

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Level 1 RIT

  • A team consisting of a minimum of two trained members.

  • Duties are to track, and rescue if needed, emergency personnel:

    • Who enter a structure involved in fire beyond the incipient stage (IDLH atmosphere)

    • Who fall victim to an unstable situation (e.g. confined space, collapse) at a emergency scene.

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Level 2 RIT

  • A team consisting of a minimum of four trained members

  • Duties are the same as Level 1 RIT

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Multiple RIT teams shall be referred to as:

RIT – 1, RIT – 2, etc.

Regardless of Level

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SPLITTING RAPIDINTERVENTION TEAMS

  • RIT-1W The primary crew

  • RIT-1X The secondary crew

  • There shall be a minimum of two firefighters assigned to each crew.

  • Each crew shall be equipped with a transceiver/radio.

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MAYDAY

  • A verbal notification to the IC that immediate action is required to rescue or assist emergency personnel operating in emergency incidents.

  • May be declared by the individual(s) in trouble or someone who identifies an individual(s) is in trouble.

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RIT Group Leader

  • Sector officer whose function is the tracking of the entry teams and command of rapid intervention operations.

  • Performs no other function but tracking, RIT and/or Accountability if needed.

  • Coordinates with Safety and Accountability Officers, but reports directly to command as noted on the next slide

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IC

RIT

Operations

Safety

Accountability

Group Leader

RIT 1

Fire Crews

RIT 2

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RIT Kit: (Rescue equipment)

  • Desirable equipment

    • RIT Kit

  • Transceiver

  • Secured hand-line

  • Forcible entry tools

  • Rescue rope

  • Hand light

  • TIC

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RIT Kit: (Rescue equipment)

  • After conducting a size-up of the incident scene, RIT may determine the need for additional equipment not listed.

  • RIT shall attempt to obtain this equipment by utilizing the apparatus at the incident scene.

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RIT Kit: (Rescue equipment)

  • RIT Kit to have as a minimum the following equipment. SCBA cylinder, spare mask, regulator, flashlight, search rope, door chocks and wire cutters.

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IMPLEMENTATION:

  • RIT shall be implemented during the initial stages of an incident.

  • Multiple RITs may be established on large incidents (numbers assigned like sectors)

  • RITs shall be assigned to the RIT Group Leader.

  • RIT Group Leader will report to command.

  • If a RIT Group Leader is not designated, then RIT will report directly to the IC.

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IMPLEMENTATION:

  • RIT shall report to the Command Post unless given a different assignment. A RIT kit from each dept. operating on the scene is needed.

  • After RIT surveys the incident scene, RIT shall gather and/or call for any additional tools or equipment, not carried in the RIT Kit that may be needed to affect a rescue.

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IMPLEMENTATION:

  • RIT shall place the equipment on a tarp in their designated sector.

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IMPLEMENTATION:

  • The RIT Group Leader is responsible for the tracking of the Entry Teams.

  • RIT Group Leader shall work with the Accountability Officer when possible.

  • If Accountability Officer is not available, the RIT Group Leader will be responsible for tracking entry teams.

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IMPLEMENTATION:

  • RIT members, except for RIT Group Leader, may be utilized for other support activities at the incident.

  • HOWEVER, these activities shall not, if abandoned due to rescue operations, place any personnel at additional risks.

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IMPLEMENTATION:

  • RIT members must maintain visual or voice contact with one another at all times.

  • RIT shall announce, via radio to the IC, that RIT has been established.

  • RIT members shall utilize the information from their on-going scene size-up to help determine the type of rescue that they may encounter.

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Entry Team:

  • No Entry Team shall enter into an IDLH until RIT has been established. (See Exceptions to Two-In/Two-Out)

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Exceptions to Two-In/Two-Out:

  • If the initial attack personnel find a known life hazard situation where immediate action could prevent the loss of life, deviation from the two-in/two-out standard may be permitted.

  • If rescue operations are initiated without an RIT in place, Command shall be notified and an RIT shall be established as available crews can be assigned.

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Exceptions to Two-In/Two-Out:

  • A written report of deviation from this SOP containing all pertinent information including the source of the reported rescue and the outcome shall be submitted by the Company Commander to the Safety Officer.

  • The Safety Officer, after reviewing the written report of deviation, shall forward a report to the Chief.

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MAYDAY Procedures:

  • Anytime emergency personnel operating on an incident feel they are trapped, injured or lost, they shall signal a MAYDAY alert.

  • Immediately following the MAYDAY alert, those personnel shall activate their “emergency identification button” on their transceiver

  • They shall also activate the manual alarm on their PASS device.

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MAYDAY Procedures:

  • They shall transmit the “ MAYDAY” via radio by announcing in increments of three “MAYDAY, MAYDAY, MAYDAY” followed by a radio message to IC identifying themselves along, their location, and situation.

  • Information pertaining to the location should be as specific as possible.

  • Repeat until acknowledged.

  • Radio or anyone else who feels this transmission is not being heard should immediately relay this information to command.

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MAYDAY Example

“MAYDAY, MAYDAY, MAYDAY, this is unit 7132W, I am located on the first floor side 2-3 and a firefighter has fallen through the floor into the basement, send help”.

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MAYDAY Procedures:

  • Command shall deploy the necessary resources needed to assist with a rescue.

  • Other members operating on the scene should be aware of the “MAYDAY” situation. However, they must continue with their assigned tasks. The task they are currently performing may very well limit injury to the person or persons in distress as well as assist the RIT team.

  • Upon the MAYDAY call, a Personal Accountability Report (PAR) shall be initiated.

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Rapid Intervention Procedures

  • RIT will only be deployed upon orders from the Incident Commander (IC)

  • When RIT is deployed, the rescue shall come under the command of the RIT Group Leader.

  • Other members must continue with their assigned tasks.

  • Fire suppression units may be switched to another channel so as not to interfere with RIT rescue activities.

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Rapid Intervention Procedures

  • A backup RIT shall be established whenever the initial RIT is deployed.

  • Upon the report of a lost or trapped firefighter(s) the RIT Group Leader will immediately concentrate RIT members efforts on rescue and abandon support activities.

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Rapid Intervention Implementation

  • RIT Group Leader shall compare information with the Accountability Officer in determining the last known location of the missing personnel.

  • In the event that an Accountability Officer has not been assigned the RIT Group Leader will handle accountability.

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Rapid Intervention Implementation

  • The individual(s) who has declared a MAYDAY or is missing shall be identified from the PAR.

  • RIT shall be deployed to the last known location of the lost or trapped personnel.

  • RIT should follow hose lines or routine search patterns and consider standard operating tactics while searching for lost personnel.

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Rapid Intervention Procedures

  • When RIT locates a downed firefighter(s) they shall notify the RIT Group Leader by name who they have located, their location and status.

  • RIT shall advise the actions being taken to remove them or if additional assistance is needed.

  • If a self-rescue or a quick grab and go rescue is not possible, RIT members shall use the “AWARE” principle.

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AWARE Principle:

  • Trapped emergency responder’s hopes of survival depend on the following four critical needs.

1.Air:RIT should first provide the victim with a redundant (primary & secondary) supply of air.

2. Water: If the rescue involves fire, the next consideration is to provide a defensible space for the victim by using a hose line or distributor to protect the victim.

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AWARE Principle:

3.A Radio: If the victim is conscious and able to communicate, RIT may want to provide the trapped victim with a transceiver to monitor his condition. Depending upon the size of the incident, a separate radio channel may be designated for the victim to use.

4.Extrication: Removal of the victim.

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Rapid Intervention Procedures

  • RIT should give the estimated time it will take to complete the rescue and advise the RIT Group Leader or Command of their plan.

  • The RIT Group Leader shall assign additional Rapid Intervention Teams to assist as needed.

  • A Level II RIT shall be in place as soon as staffing allows during an active RIT operation.

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Termination of RIT:

  • RIT can only be terminated when the incident does not meet one of the definitions of an IDLH.

  • Or when responders are not in a Confined space, collapse or any other situation recognized to be unstable that could cause injury.

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QUIZ

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QUIZ

  • Level 1 RIT will consist of no less than ___________ trained firefighter(s).

  • 1

  • 2

  • 3

  • 4

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QUIZ

  • The interior structure involved in fire, beyond the incipient stage is considered an ____________ atmosphere.

  • PAR

  • BLEVE

  • IDLH

  • RIT

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QUIZ

3. A team consisting of a minimum of four trained firefighters whose duties are to track, and rescue if needed, emergency personnel that enter a structure involved in fire beyond the incipient stage.

  • Level 1 RIT

  • Level 2 RIT

  • Level 3 RIT

  • Level 4 RIT

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QUIZ

4.Trapped emergency responder’s hopes of survival may depend on which of the following four needs?

  • Air

  • Water

  • Radio

  • Extrication

  • All the above

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QUIZ

5. The RIT Group Leader is a sector officer who reports directly to _______.

  • The Incident Commander

  • A Company Officer

  • The Safety Officer

  • No one, he/she is in charge

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QUIZ

6. A verbal notification to the Incident Commander that immediate action is required to rescue or assist emergency personnel operating in emergency incident.

  • PAR

  • RIT

  • MAYDAY

  • AWARE

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QUIZ

7. If rescue operations are initiated without a RIT in place, the company officer must _________________.

  • resign

  • submit a written report of deviation

  • be counseled

  • demoted

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QUIZ

8. A report given to command or Operations that all members of the crew are accounted for.

  • TIC

  • AWARE

  • IDLH

  • PAR

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QUIZ

9. When a Level 2 Rapid Intervention Team is split up into two crews. The crews are identified as RIT-1W and RIT-1X.

  • True

  • False

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QUIZ

10. The Rapid Intervention Team can be terminated at any time as long as it was set up initially.

  • True

  • False

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QUIZ Answers

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QUIZ Answers

  • Level 1 RIT will consist of no less than ___________ trained firefighter(s).

  • 1

  • 2

  • 3

  • 4

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QUIZ Answers

  • The interior structure involved in fire, beyond the incipient stage is considered an ____________ atmosphere.

  • PAR

  • BLEVE

  • IDLH

  • RIT

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QUIZ Answers

3. A team consisting of a minimum of four trained firefighters whose duties are to track, and rescue if needed, emergency personnel that enter a structure involved in fire beyond the incipient stage.

  • Level 1 RIT

  • Level 2 RIT

  • Level 3 RIT

  • Level 4 RIT

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QUIZ Answers

4.Trapped emergency responder’s hopes of survival may depend on which of the following four needs?

  • Air

  • Water

  • Radio

  • Extrication

  • All the above

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QUIZ Answers

5. The RIT Group Leader is a sector officer who reports directly to _______.

  • The Incident Commander

  • A Company Officer

  • The Safety Officer

  • No one, he/she is in charge

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QUIZ Answers

6. A verbal notification to the Incident Commander that immediate action is required to rescue or assist emergency personnel operating in emergency incident.

  • PAR

  • RIT

  • MAYDAY

  • AWARE

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QUIZ Answers

7. If rescue operations are initiated without a RIT in place, the company officer must _________________.

  • resign

  • submit a written report of deviation

  • be counseled

  • demoted

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QUIZ Answers

8. A report given to command or Operations that all members of the crew are accounted for.

  • TIC

  • AWARE

  • IDLH

  • PAR

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QUIZ Answers

9. When a Level 2 Rapid Intervention Team is split up into two crews. The crews are identified as RIT-1W and RIT-1X.

  • True

  • False

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QUIZ Answers

10. The Rapid Intervention Team can be terminated at any time as long as it was set up initially.

  • True

  • False

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Any questions or comments concerning the Rapid Intervention S.O.P. or the PowerPoint Presentation can be forwarded to the Jefferson County Instructors Association.

Rapid Intervention Team & MAYDAY Procedures


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