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IMPACT OF PREECLAMPSIA ON BIRTH OUTCOMES Xu Xiong, MD, DrPH Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Université de Montréal, Quebec, Canada Preeclampsia A syndrome characterized mainly by hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation.

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IMPACT OF PREECLAMPSIA ON BIRTH OUTCOMES

Xu Xiong, MD, DrPHDepartment of Obstetrics and GynecologyUniversité de Montréal, Quebec, Canada


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Preeclampsia

  • A syndrome characterized mainly by hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation.

  • A leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide.

  • Unknown etiology and pathogenesis.

  • No treatment (except early delivery: preterm birth).

  • No prevention.


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IMPACT OF PREECLAMPSIA ON BIRTH OUTCOMES

  • Preeclampsia is associated with an increased risk of poor fetal growth (e.g., SGA, LBW)


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Fig 1. PIH and Low Birth Weight(N=97,270 Alberta, Canada)


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Fig 2. PIH and Preterm birth(N=97,270 Alberta, Canada)


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Fig 3. PIH and Small for Gestational Age(N=97,270 Alberta, Canada)


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IMPACT OF PREECLAMPSIA ON BIRTH OUTCOMES

  • Preeclampsia is associated with an increased risk of poor fetal growth (SGA, LBW)

  • Preeclampsia is associated with an excessive fetal growth (LGA, HBW)


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Fig 4. Preeclampsia & High Birth Weight (>4000 g)(N=14,461, Suzhou, China, 1989-1990)




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Preeclampsia and fetal growth(Xiong et al, Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;180:207-13)(Xiong et al, Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000;183:148-55)

Normotensive group

Preeclamptic group

LGA

SGA

LGA

SGA

5%

5%

10%

10%

AGA

AGA

90%

80%

Data from Canada, China, Europe, South-Africa, US (CPEP trial) show that preeclampsia is also associated with an increased rate of high birth weight.


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IMPACT OF PREECLAMPSIA ON BIRTH OUTCOMES

  • Preeclampsia is associated with an increased risk of poor fetal growth (SGA, LBW)

  • Preeclampsia is associated with an excessive fetal growth (LGA, HBW)

  • Effect of preeclampsia on birth weight is a function of gestational age:


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Fig. 7 Effect of PIH on birth weight by gestational age(Xiong et al, American Journal of Epidemiology, 2002;155:203-9)


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IMPACT OF PREECLAMPSIA ON BIRTH OUTCOMES

  • Preeclampsia is associated with an increased risk of poor fetal growth (SGA, LBW)

  • Preeclampsia is associated with an excessive fetal growth (LGA, HBW)

  • Effect of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension on birth weight is a function of gestational age:

    • Effect of decreased birth weight is found mostly among preterm births. (38.8% preeclamptic women)

    • Most babies born to mothers with preeclampsia at term actually have normal birth weight for expected gestational age . (61.2% preeclamptic women)


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Implications to pathophysiology of preeclampsia?

Most babies born to mothers with preeclampsia, especially born at term, have normal fetal growth. These findings do not endorse the currently held theory that reduced uteroplacental perfusion is the unique pathophysiologic process in preeclampsia.


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