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Grid Architecture for eLearning Eric Yen Computing Centre, Academia Sinica Jan. 22th, 2003 Outline Emergence of eLearning Why using Grid for eLearning? Related Work in the World Our Approaches Future Development and Conclusion The Unprecedented Ten Years Networking from 100Kbps to Gbps

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Grid Architecture for eLearning

Eric Yen

Computing Centre, Academia Sinica

Jan. 22th, 2003


Outline l.jpg
Outline

  • Emergence of eLearning

  • Why using Grid for eLearning?

  • Related Work in the World

  • Our Approaches

  • Future Development and Conclusion


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The Unprecedented Ten Years

  • Networking from 100Kbps to Gbps

  • Computing from 100MFLOPS to TeraFLOPS

  • Storage from 100GigaBytes to PetaBytes

  • We are producing 3 x 1018 Bytes of data each year

  • Most business processes, research, learning, commerce, socialising, etc. may be conducted on the Internet

  • Internet and Digital Technology together bring in revolutionary ways to communicate, deal with information and collaborate


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What is eLearning

  • Definition

    • Internet-based learning, for simplicity

    • Refers to the use of IT to create, deliver, manage and support learning and training, anytime, anywhere

    • Used for enhancing quality and improving accessibility to education and training

  • IT fosters the opening of schools to other resources of learning, such as multimedia libraries, museums, local community resources, research centers, and transnational cooperation

  • IT may also foster new relationships and new roles for students acting as researchers, creators, designers, etc.

  • Toward open learning environments and virtual teaching


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Emergence of eLearning1

  • Survey of accessibility to eLearning for people with disabilities by Electronic Training Village(ETV), over 320 respondents across Europe

    • 54.8% think it will open up new and innovative opportunities for communities of learners with disabilities

    • Only 1.5% consider eLearning is inappropriate for most learners with disabilities

  • eLearning plays an important role in developing a more convergent system of higher education for mobility, employability and competitiveness

  • To be effective, the lifelong education and training strategy should, as a priority, tackle problems such as the lack of interest shown by individuals, time constraints, the cost of training, and the lack of information on training possibilities --> demands for eLearning

Data from “What’s new in eLearning”, europa.eu.int/comm/education/elearning/wn2001_09/what2.htm


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Emergence of eLerning2

  • Adaptation of education and training systems to meet the challenge: making Europe “the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion” --> eLearning: Designing Tomorrow’s Education


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Challenge and Goals of eLearning

  • Challenge

    • Building Knowledge Society

    • Ubiquitous Learning

    • Emergence of New Learning Models --> Workflow Analysis

    • The most efficient implementation

    • Adaptation to technology changes

  • Goals

    • Learning how to learn

    • Helping people with disabilities more easier to learn

    • Life Long Learning and Life Long Teaching

    • Training at All Levels

    • Formation of Learning Society


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Essence of eLearning

  • Taking advantage of “Virtual Environment”

  • Requirements

    • Demand Driven: use case-based

    • Users need a service rather than a product

    • Adaptability: need to evolve continually by integrating different services, adding new tools and adapting to specific learning scenarios

    • Compatibility: quick development of a course site, and compatible to open and standard format, e.g., the SCORM, IEEE, etc.

    • Low Cost

    • Outreach and Collaboration


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Basic Requirements of eLearning

  • Combination of either Learner Centric or Teacher Centric, for making the most outcome

  • Diversified, Large Amount, Distributed and better accessed Learning Resources

  • Well Organized and Complete Content Description

  • Integration of heterogeneous Information Resources

  • On Demand and Ubiquitous Learning for anyone

  • Toward Effective Knowledge Discovery and Well Knowledge Organization & Management


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Demands for What?

  • Open Source Model

    • Foster the activities for using variant tools to solve problems

    • Active learning and learn how to learn

    • Facilitate free and rapid exchange of knowledge and ideas

  • Open Source eLearning Platform

    • Enhance quality of learning experience

    • Ubiquitous learning: Learning-on-Demand and Learning everywhere

      • Notes: Learners have much greater choice in how their learning is delivered, enabling them to interact easily with teachers and access appropriate levels of administrative, educational and technical support.

    • Make education accessible for whom choose not to or cannot attend classes on campus

      • Notes: Ensuring that online resources and assessment are of equivalent or superior quality to those available in a traditional learning environment.

    • Facilitate Realization of Life Long Learning

    • Bridging the Digital Divide

    • Knowledge-based Resource Discovery, Sharing, Accumulation, and Creation

  • National eLearning Strategy


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How to Get There?

  • Open Source eLearning Platform

    • Web-based virtual learning, teaching and informing

    • Robust, distributed collaborated and ubiquitous computing environment as the infrastructure --> demands for Grid Infrastructure !

    • Standardization

      • Well-defined specification

      • Interoperability Mechanism for conversion, transformation, and exchange, etc.

      • Integration

  • Building Community for

    • Developing Common tools

    • Technical Study & Support

    • Requirements Collection

    • Planning

    • Suggestions to National Strategy

  • Grid Infrastructure

  • Learning Resources

  • eLearning Services


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The Best Solution from Grid

  • Support sharing and coordinated use of diverse resources in dynamic “virtual organizations” – Grid !

  • Good technical solutions for key problems, such as

    • Security enhancement like authentication and authorization

    • Resource discovery and monitoring

    • Reliable remote service invocation

    • High-performance remote data access

    • -- Grid !

  • Good quality reference implementation, multi-lingual support, interfaces to many systems, large user base, industrial support, etc. – Grid !

  • Persistent Web Services – Grid !


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What Grid can do ?

  • Coordinating the sharing of distributed resources and flexible collaboration thru “virtual organization”

  • Effective management of distributed heterogeneous resources

  • Solving larger scale problem which is beyond the provision of any single institute/supercomputer in the world

  • Construction of a secure, reliable, efficient, and scalable mass storage system environment

  • Optimize the Usage of Resources

  • Facilitate better Sharing and Integration of Information Resources

  • Demands of IT for scientific researches in the new millennium

    • Management of PetaByte scale storage system

    • Collaborative processing

    • Sharing and collaborating distributed resources

  • Summary:Grid is the mainstream for IT infrastructure


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Related Work in the World

  • Learning GRID of Excellence Working Group (LeGE-WG): Towards a European Learning GRID Infrastructure

  • NGfL

  • eScience, IST

  • ADL (DoD Advanced Distributed Learning), US

  • EOE (Apple Computer’s Educational Object Economy)

  • GEM (Gateway to Education Materials) Project

  • GESTALT (Getting Educational Systems Talking Across Leading-Edge Technologies)

  • eLearning in Taiwan --> eTAIWAN


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Progress of eLearning in Taiwan

  • Master Plan of Information Technology in Education for Primary and Secondary Schools

    • Ministry of Education, 2001 --2005

    • 20% of curriculum time of using IT

    • 600 seed schools

    • Training teacher teams

    • Equipping teachers with notebook computers

  • Program of Science and Technology for e-Learning (2003)

    • Cross Ministry initiative

    • 130 million US$ for 5 years

    • Led by the President Liu of NCU


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Sample of an eLearning Project in Taiwan

Courtesy by Tak-Wai Chan, NCU, Taiwan, PNC 2002 Conf


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Learning Flow in Classroom

  • Step 1. Preparation before class (teacher)

  • Step 2. Introductory discussion (teacher)

  • Step 3. Group working on projects (students)

  • Step 4. Group working on reports (students)

  • Step 5. Presentations (students)

  • Step 6. Peer evaluations among groups (students)

  • Step 7. Discussion and conclusion (teacher)

  • Step 8. Praising individual or team (teacher)

Courtesy by Tak-Wai Chan, NCU, Taiwan, PNC 2002 Conf


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Learning Flow in Classroom

Courtesy by Tak-Wai Chan, NCU, Taiwan, PNC 2002 Conf


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Scope of e-Learning1

  • Person – instructor, and learner

  • Platform – a content management system for e-Learning (LCMS)

  • Content

    • Curriculum

    • Course

    • Lesson

    • Learning objects

    • Information objects

    • Raw content items


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Scope of e-Learning2

PERSON

L

C

M

S

Leaning

Content

I

N

S

T

R

U

C

T

O

R

L

E

A

R

N

E

R

Curriculum

Course

Lesson

Learning Obj.

Infor. Obj.

Raw Content Obj.


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person

event

content

object

event

event

time

space

event

Scope of e-Learning4Generic Metadata Attributes


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DA for Learning Contents

  • Serving as sources of learning materials

  • Content management for DA paves the framework for knowledge-based persistent archive

  • Value added program for building up sustainable business of digital contents

  • Links to samples in NDAP


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Scope of Digital Archives

Domain Expertise

e-Research

Culture and

Knowledge Background

Being

Digitised

e-Learning

Digital

Archives

Born

Digital

Enterprise

Intelligence

General

Knowledge Base

Business Process and Lifecycle


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Content Management Challenges1

  • Separating content from presentation

  • Versioning, Roll-back

  • Data/Information re-use

  • Re-purposing of Information, flexible Output

  • Workflow, submit, review, approve, store




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Content Management Challenges2

  • Integrating diversified contents and external sources

  • System and roles-based security

  • Metadata Management

  • Compute and Storage resources on demand

  • Reliability and Scalability


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Basic Functions of a CMS

  • A CMS manages the path from authoring through to publishing using a scheme of workflow and by providing a system for content storage and integration.

    • Authoring/Capturing

    • Workflow

    • Integration and Storage

    • Publishing/Dissemination




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Grid Applications in AS

  • High Energy Physics: Computational Grid, Data Grid, Access Grid

  • BioGrid: Computational Grid, Data Grid, Access Grid

    • In charge of coordination of National Genomic … Project

    • Bio-Computing

    • Bio-Informatics

    • Bio-Diversity

    • Bio-Portal

  • Computational Chemistry and Computational Physics: Computational Grid, Access Grid

  • National Digital Archives: Data Grid, Access Grid

    • In charge of coordination of National Digital Archive Project

  • Earth Science and Astronomy Research: Computational Grid, Data Grid

    • Earthquake Data Center

    • BATS

  • Geospatial Information Science & Applications: Data Grid, Access Grid

    • NSDI

    • Web-based Space, Time and Language Content Architecture

  • eLearning: Access Grid, Data Grid and less Computational Grid


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Pilot Projects for eLearning in AS

  • Social University for Adults Learning

  • Community University for Minority, e.g., Indigenous People

  • Parallel Programming and Computing Applications

  • Survey of the standardization of metadata for eLearning


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Access Grid for Collaborative Env.

  • Multi-point Video Conference Facilities

    • MCU-based : 24 concurrent sessions

    • VRVS

    • H.320/H.323

  • WhiteBoard

  • Video Server

  • Web-based Content Retrieval and Dissemination


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Access Grid for Collaborative Env.

  • Voice, video and data conferencing over multiple networks (IP and ISDN) using one platform.

  • MULTIPOINT VIDEO SOLUTIONS JUST FOR IP

    • IP Continuous Presence

    • IP QoS

    • and deliver enhanced support for IP conferencing.

  • Benefits:

    • Improved conference connection rates with optimal capabilities

    • Improved audio quality standard with your system

    • Customize your meetings like face-to-face meetings

    • Reservationless/Adhoc conferencing capabilities

    • T.120 Data Conferencing across mixed ISDN and IP networks

    • Easy Management: To suit your individual needs, choose from browser based or Windows based scheduling and management


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Introduction to Digital Archive

  • Digital Archive is a collection of digital objects.

  • A digital object is defined as something (e.g., an image, an audio recording, a text document, a movie, a map) that has been digitally encoded and integrated with metadata to support discovery, use, and storage of those objects.

  • Goals for Digital Archive (functional point of view)

    • Protection of the original

    • Duplication for safety

    • Search and Retrieval

    • Easy Access

    • Resource Sharing

    • Lower cost of maintenance and dissemination

    • Max. flexibility for integration of heterogeneous/homogeneous information resources

    • Providing abundant resources for knowledge discovery and knowledge construction


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Why Knowledge-based Approach for Digital Archives

Passive Requirements: for long-term scalable and persistent archives while the technology evolves

Active Requirements: for generation of new knowledge (for easily discover new and unexpected patterns, trends and relationships that can be hidden deep within very large and diverse datasets)


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Clarification of Concepts

  • Collection-based Persistent Archives

    • Organization of the collection is archived simultaneously with the digital objects that comprise the collection.

    • Focus

      • Development of infrastructure independent representations for the information content of the collection,

      • Interoperability mechanisms to support migration of the collection onto new SW & HW systems,

      • Use of a standard markup language to annotate the information content

    • Purpose: maintain not only the bits associated with the original data, but also the context that permits the data to be interpreted

  • Knowledge-based Archives

    • Archival description of a collection includes not only contextual information about the digital objects, but also knowledge about the relationships used to derive the contextual information.


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Knowledge-based Archive

  • Archive Accession Process

    • Implied knowledge: e.g., interpretation of fields

    • Structural knowledge: e.g., topology associated with digital line graphs

    • Domain knowledge: e.g., relationships between domain concepts

    • Procedural knowledge: e.g., workflow creation steps for digital objects

    • Presentation kwnoeldge: e.g., support for knowledge-based queries

  • Relationships

    • Semantic/logical relationships

    • Procedural/temporal relationships

    • Structural/spatial relationships

    • Functional relationships


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Why Knowledge-based Approach for Digital Library ?1

  • Providing “Conceptual Infrastructure”

    • Mapping out the conceptual structure and providing a common language for a field

    • Providing classification/typology and concept definitions. Clarifying concepts by putting them into context. Thus providing orientation and serving as a reference tool for individual researchers and practitioners and thereby

    • Assisting with the exploration of the conceptual context of a research problem and in structuring the problem, thereby providing the conceptual basis for the design of good research, for the consistent definition of variables, and thus the cumulation of research results.

    • Providing the conceptual basis for the exploration of the various aspects of a program in program planning, in the identification of approaches and strategies, and in the development of evaluation criteria

  • Assisting users in understanding context

  • Assisting information providers with conceptualizing a topic and with finding the proper term

  • Discovery of high quality resources

  • Providing frameworks for information exchange and resource interoperability

Dagobert Soergel, Evaluation of Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS)


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Geospatial Data Infrastructure

Courtesy by FGDC, USGS




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  • Coordination and Resource Integration

  • Just-in-Time Education and Training

  • Standards

  • Enhancing Quality & improve Accessibility

  • Open Learning Environment & Virtual Teaching

  • Infrastructure and Equipment

  • Networking: from connected to better connection & wider education usage

  • Quality Contents and Services

  • Cost Saving

  • Flexibility

  • Balance of eLearning & Campus Learning

  • Ubiquity and Reliability

  • Multilingual Portals

  • Sustainable commercial market for eLearning content development

Key Issues for eLearning


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Future Research Topics

  • Visual Representations

  • Collaborative Learning and Behavioral Models

  • Knowledge Management

  • Learning Process and Knowledge Discovery

  • Theoretical Aspects concerning Communities Processes

  • Identify the Learning and Teaching Needs

  • Baseline a Grid Architecture Design and Prototype a Learning Grid

  • Pedagogy, eContents and user-friendly interfaces


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Conceptual IT Architecture for Supporting of Research

Users

Web-based GUI/HCI

Metadata

HPC/HTC

HC

BioC

CMS

GIST

CA

Security & Authentication

Grid Middleware

Computer, Storage & Communication


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Taipei

GigaPoP

Taiwan LCG Structures:

Taiwan domestic network. Minimum bandwidth is 2.5Gbps.

Taipei GigaPoP is a Metropolitan Fiber Ring, with the capability to upgrade from 10Gbps to Multi-Lambda network.

Taiwan International Connectivity:

Broadband connections to US, Europe, Japan and Hong Kong are in place and will be upgraded when necessary.

CN

CERnet

NCTU

AU

NCU

Tear 2/3

EU

YMU

NTOU

10G

JP

Academia

Sinica (AS)

Tear 1/2

1.2G or 2.5G

via StarLight in Ph#1

US

MOECC

155M  622M

622M

Taipei

GigaPoP

(10G & 2.5G)

CGU

155M  622M

HK

TANet

Schools

Taipei City

School Net, GSN, ISPs…

CN

CSTnet

SG

TH

NTU

Tear 2/3


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The Infrastructure for Integrating Web Services & Grid Technology

Web Services & Grid Protocols

Courtesy by IBM Taiwan


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Open Grid Services Architecture Technology

  • Objectives:

    • Manage resources across distributed heterogeneous platforms

    • Deliver seamless QoS

    • Provide a common base for autonomic management solutions

    • Define open, published interfaces

    • Exploit industry-standard integration technologies

      • Web Services, SOAP, XML,...

    • Integrate with existing IT resources


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Open Grid Infrastructure (OGSI) Technology

Grid Service Implementation - Examples

Courtesy by IBM Taiwan


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Architecture Framework Technology

OGSA Software Evolution

Courtesy by IBM Taiwan


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Future & Conclusion Technology

  • Help teachers and learners to open their minds for new scenarios

  • Policy and Strategies for Future Development

  • Functional Requirements for eLearning, from the users perspectives

  • Appropriate Grid Architecture to support the requirements

  • Practical Models and processes for eLearning

  • Study of user behaviors and collecting requirements continuously, by use case analysis


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