PAKISTAN Wind energy Basics November 2006 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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PAKISTAN Wind energy Basics November 2006 Mechanics of Wind Energy PAKISTAN March 2007 Index IPEK energy Wind Energy – An Introduction Wind Energy – Global Scenario Legal Frame / AEDB and Role of AEDB Wind Resources in Pakistan Wind Energy – Some Practical Issues

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PAKISTAN Wind energy Basics November 2006

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PAKISTANWind energy BasicsNovember 2006

Mechanics of Wind EnergyPAKISTANMarch 2007

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  • IPEK energy

  • Wind Energy – An Introduction

  • Wind Energy – Global Scenario

  • Legal Frame / AEDB and Role of AEDB

  • Wind Resources in Pakistan

  • Wind Energy – Some Practical Issues

  • Wind Energy – An Analysis / Outlook Pakistan

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IPEK energy GmbH

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IPEK energy GmbH


  • are an independentengineering & consultancy company

  • support you from acquisition to turnkey ready construction of renewable power generation systems worldwide

  • offer skilful support with international financing and after commissioning

  • take the technical business management

  • are very flexible and act in close cooperation with our clients exactly to the requirements of the international markets

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Key Services

  • Engineering & Consulting

    • acquire suitable sites

    • complete permitting procedures

    • negotiate required Power Purchase Agreement (PPA)

    • organize international funding

    • supervision of construction till take over of the plan

    • control operations management

  • Wind Measuring

    • standard IEC confirm measuring trough Wind Mast

    • and SODAR measuring

  • Bankable Feasibility Studies

  • Due Diligence

  • Emissions Trading

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Osman Ipek – Managing Director

  • Electrical Engineer (Main Branch Renewable Energies)

  • Active in Wind Branch since 2000

    • project development

    • project management

    • project implementation

    • engineering

    • due diligence

    • measurement and monitoring systems

    • wind resource assessment

    • teaching and education, concepts; strategies; system layout

  • 18 Wind farm Projects realized

  • More than 800MW projects developed in 6 countries

  • Due Diligence of more than 220MW wind projects

  • Feasibility studies for more than 40 wind farms

  • Currently on going Projects of >500MW in Turkey, Iran and Pakistan

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Osman Ipek – Managing Director

  • Countries of Work Experience (alphabetical order):

    • Croatia

    • Germany

    • Hungary

    • Iran

    • Italy

    • Lithuania

    • Pakistan

    • Spain

    • Turkey

    • Yemen

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German Wind Energy Association

WINDTEST Grevenbroich GmbH

Wind Rose Consultancy

The Association of German Engineers

Membership/ Partners

Pakistan Wind Energy Association

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Wind Energy – An Introduction

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How wind is converted to power?

  • A wind turbine obtains its power input by converting the force of the wind into a torque (turning force) acting on the rotor blades

  • The amount of energy which the wind transfers to the rotor depends

    • on the density of the air

    • the rotor area

    • and the wind speed.

  • In other words you can get more energy:

    • the "heavier" the air

    • the “bigger” the rotor

    • the “higher” the wind speed

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Key Components of a Wind Farm

  • Wind Turbines

  • Civil Works

    • Foundations

    • Road Network

    • Crane Places

    • Service buildings

    • Residential Quarter

  • Electrical Works

    • Step-up transformers

    • Wiring

    • Sub-station for power delivery

  • Wind Measuring Towers

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Components of Wind Turbine


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Wind Energy – Global Scenario

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Global Cumulative Installed Capacity 1995-2006

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Global Annual Installed Capacity 1995-2006

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Capacity Addition - 2006

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Pakistan ?

Annual Installed Capacity by Region

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Turbine Size Growth

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Basis Frame of Wind Energy Investment

  • Legal Frame

  • Wind Energy potential

  • Tariff

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Legal Frame in Pakistan

Alternative Energy Development Board


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  • Government of Pakistan created the Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB) in May 2003 to act as the central national body on the subject of Renewable Energy

  • Air Marshal (Retd) Shahid Hamid was appointed as the Chairman of the Board

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Target of AEDB

  • Ensure 10% Share of Alternative Energy Technologies in National Grid by Year 2015

  • Act as Central Agencya- Awarenessb- Policiesc- Facilitate Creation of Base in Pakistan for Alternative Energy (AE) Technologies

  • Develop National Plans and Policies for AEa- Tax Holidaysb- Encourage Private Sectorc- Facilitate Investment

  • Foster Sustainable Development a- Facilitate Enhancement of Technical Skills.b- Initiate & Incubate Projects

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Working actively in the fields of:

  • Wind Power

  • Solar Power

  • Micro Hydels

  • Biomass

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Why Wind Power for Pakistan

  • Vast resources (estimated capacity around 40,000 MW)

  • Area closer to the Grid resulting in easier off-take by power purchaser

  • Wind Energy is a proven technology which can be trusted and guaranteed for project life

  • Most Cost effective (after small hydro which are located in remote inaccessible areas and with grid availability)

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Benefits for Sponsors – Legal Frame

  • Guaranteed Sale

  • Wind Risk is covered by the Gov. of Pakistan

  • Guaranteed Returns for Investors

  • Protection against foreign exchange rate fluctuations

  • Protection against inflation in local markets

  • No Taxes (income / import etc)

  • Benefit of Carbon Credits shared

  • Complete Security package to protect Interests of Investors and Lenders

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AEDB - Wind Power

  • LOIs have been issued to almost 80 interested Investors

    • Investors are coming from Pakistan but also from Canada, Malaysia, Turkey, USA etc

  • Policy for development of renewable energy in Pakistan has been approved

  • PPA is in final stage

  • Up-front Tariff have been approved by NEPRA to facilitate fast track project development

  • Several Investors have accept the approved Tariff of NEPRA

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LOI – Procedure in Pakistan

  • Registration with AEDB

  • Submission of proposal to AEDB

  • Issuance of LOI by AEDB on submission of fee of Rs. 600,000 - after due diligence of financial strength of the company

  • Land allocation (on availability from Gov. of Sindh)

  • Feasibility Study (for onward submission to NEPRA & NTDC/KESC after AEDB's vetting and approval)

  • Generation License (from NEPRA)

  • Power Purchaser's commitment for purchase of power

  • Tariff acceptance.

  • Energy Purchase Agreement

  • Implementation Agreement

  • LOS (to be issued by AEDB)

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Processing Schedule (< 50MW)

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A Typical Wind Farm Project Plan

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Basis Frame of Wind Energy Investment

  • Legal Frame

  • Tariff

  • Wind Energy potential

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Tariff - International

Wind Tariff onshore 2006 in comparison


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Basis Frame of Wind Energy Investment

  • Legal Frame

  • Tariff

  • Wind Energy potential

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Wind Resources in Pakistan

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Wind Resources in Pakistan

  • The project area for the wind mapping was 1,100km along Sindh and Balochistan coast and up to 100km deep northward over land from the coast.

  • 44 stations for collecting wind data have been installed to study the wind regime as shown in figures.

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Wind Resources in Baluchistan

List of 23: Aghore, Basol, Bella, Gaddani, Gawadar, Hoshab, Hub-Choki, Jiwani, Liari, Makola, Managi, Mand, Nasirabad, Nelunt, Ormara, Othal, Pasni, Phore, Pishukan, Ramra, Tump, Turbat, Winder.

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Wind Resources in Sindh

List of 21 stations: Badin, Baghan, Churhar-Jamali, Gharo, Golarchi, Hawks-Bay, Hyderabad, Jati, Kadhan, Karachi, Kati-Bandar, Matli, Mirpur-Sakro, Nooriabad, Sajawal, Shah-Bandar, Talhar, Thano-Bula-Khan, Jamshoro, DHA Karachi, Thatta.

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“Wind Corridor” in Pakistan


Average summer wind direction from Gharo to Hyderabad

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Monthly Energy Yield vs. Time of Day

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Wind at 80m height (calculated)

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Basis Frame of Wind Energy Investment

  • Legal Frame

  • Tariff

  • Wind Energy potential

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Wind Power in Pakistan

  • 14 Investors have been allocated land for project development

  • 4 Investors have already installed own wind measuring stations

  • 3 Investors have been started the foundation work of own wind measuring stations

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Ground Breaking Ceremony MASTERWIND

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Ground Breaking Ceremony ZORLU

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Wind Energy – Some Practical Issues

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Wind speed

  • The wind speed is extremely important for the amount of energy a wind turbine can convert to electricity

  • The energy content of the wind varies with the cube (the third power) of the average wind speed

  • If the wind speed is twice as high it contains eight times as much energy

    2³ = 2 x 2 x 2 =8

  • Wind measuring is important to get the real wind speed at the specific site

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Wind measuring

The best way of measuring wind speeds at a prospective wind turbine site is to fit an anemometer to the top of a mast which has the same height as the expected hub height of the wind turbine to be used.

This way one avoids the uncertainty involved in recalculating the wind speeds to a different height.

By fitting the anemometer to the top of the mast one minimizes the disturbances of airflows from the mast itself.

If anemometers are placed on the side of the mast it is essential to place them in the prevailing wind direction in order to minimize the wind shade from the tower

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50m Wind Mast –Zephyr Power

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60m Wind Measuring Mast- NPE

First 60m Wind Measuring mast in Pakistan


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80m Wind Measuring Mast- BEL

First 80m Wind Measuring mast in Pakistan (

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Selecting a Wind Turbine Site

Wind Conditions

Looking at nature itself is usually an excellent guide to finding a suitable WF site.

 trees and shrubs (wind direction)

 move along a rugged coastline (notice that centuries of erosion have worked in one particular direction)

 Meteorology data, ideally in terms of a wind rose calculated over 30 years is probably your best guide,

 Maybe wind turbines are already in the area

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(Source: internet)

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Selecting a Wind Turbine Site (2)

Grid Connection

Large WTG have to be connected to the electrical grid (10-30 kV)

Grid Reinforcement

The electrical grid near the WTG should be able to receive the electricity coming from the turbine.

Soil Conditions

Both the feasibility of building foundations of the turbines, and road construction to reach the site with heavy trucks must be taken into account with any wind turbine project.

Pitfalls in Using Meteorology Data

Precision measurement of wind speeds, and thus wind energy is not nearly as important for weather forecasting as it is for wind energy planning, however.

Wind speeds are heavily influenced by the surface roughness of the surrounding area, of nearby obstacles (such as trees, lighthouses or other buildings), and by the contours of the local terrain.

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Transport (2)

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Weights / Numbers

Number of Transport Trucks:

  • Tower:3

  • Nacelle: 1

  • Hub: 1

  • Blades:3

  • Total: 8

  • For a WF with 50MW

  •  264 heavy trucks

Tower of GE 1,5:

  • 64.7m86 tons

  • 85m98 tons

  • 100m113 tons

  • Nacelle: 52 tons

  • Hub: 14 tons

  • Blades:21 tons

    50MW WF with GE1.5 Hub 64.7m:

    33 x 173 tons = 5,709 tons

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Tower installation

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Tower installation

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Nacelle and Blade installation

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Transformer / Cable

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Wind Energy – An Analysis

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Worldwide Success Stories

  • Annual turnover in 2006 of more than 13 billion Euros (17 billion US Dollars)

  • Estimated 150,000 people employed around the world

  • In Denmark, 20% of the country’s electricity is currently supplied by the wind

  • In northern Germany, wind can contribute 35% of the supply

  • In Spain, Europe’s fifth largest country, the contribution has reached 8%, and is set to rise to 15% by the end of decade

> 2-3 billion Euro possible in Pakistan

Add of new JOBS in Pakistan

> 10% possible in Pakistan

> Local Manufacture and Export ?

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Benefits of Wind Energy

  • Prices of fuel are expected to go up substantially in coming years

  • On a long term basis, costs of electricity from renewable sources are more predictable than thermal energy

  • Wind energy reduces cost of electricity now and in the future

  • Much lower external costs, and has the benefit of additional earnings from CO2 certificates

  • Wind is an indigenous resource. Does not require foreign exchange expenditure on import of fuel. Also adds security to countries energy mix. Long term supply of wind is assured

  • Is environmentally friendly. Very low external costs

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  • AEDB has to developed a plan, that the federal goal of 10% of RE in 2015 can be reached

  • 1,800 – 2,700 MW Wind farms are planned till 2015

  • Annual installation of 200 – 380 MW

  • Government takes the “wind risk”

     project financing is possible

  • Land will be leased from Sindh Government to reasonable rates

  • No costs for the external grid connection

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For any further information please contact us:

IPEK energy GmbH

Marktplatz 4

48431 Rheine- Germany

Tel.:   +49.5971.91 4619-0

Fax:   +49.5971.91 4619-20

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