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Manifest Destiny. Section 2 Territorial Expansion What were the effects of the Mexican-American War and the California Gold Rush?. What was happening in America during the early/mid 1800\'s?. Political Events. Presidents: Jackson, Van Buren, Harrison, Tyler

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manifest destiny
Manifest Destiny

Section 2

Territorial Expansion

What were the effects of the Mexican-American War and the California Gold Rush?


What was happening

in America during

the early/mid 1800\'s?

political events
Political Events
  • Presidents: Jackson, Van Buren, Harrison, Tyler
    • Harrison is first to die in office (pneumonia)
  • States: 26 (Missouri, Arkansas, Michigan)
  • Democratic-Republicans dissolve
    • Democrats & Whig Party arise
social changes immigration
Social Changes - Immigration
  • Growing movement of people to America
    • Britain, Ireland, Germany, China
    • Many ‘Push/Pull Factors’ bring people to America
  • Overcrowding in cities leads to prejudice
  • “The Know-Nothing Party” enjoys brief success
social changes literature philosophy
Social Changes – Literature & Philosophy
  • The movement in European art called Romanticism stressed the individual, imagination, creativity, and emotion.
  • James Fenimore Cooper – Last of the Mohicans (1826)
  • Noah Webster – American Dictionary (1828)
  • Henry Thoreau – Walden (1854)
  • Louisa May Alcott – Little Women (1868)
  • Walt Whitman – Leaves of Grass (1855)
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson – transcendentalism (people can find truth within themselves through feeling and intuition – “GUT FEELING”)
america achieves manifest destiny
America Achieves Manifest Destiny
  • March 1848 – Mexicans made peace with the U.S. with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    • U.S. Army left Mexico City
    • U.S. paid Mexico $15 million
    • U.S. got New Mexico, California
    • Rio Grande River was the southern boundary of Texas
  • Mexicans disgusted and humiliated
  • Polk upset because U.S. got so little
america achieves manifest destiny1
America Achieves Manifest Destiny
  • In Gadsden Purchase of 1853 U.S. purchased another 26,640 square miles in southern New Mexico and Arizona from Mexico for $15 million (to build a railroad)
an america free or slave
An America Free, or Slave?
  • Several attempts made to deal with slavery – NONE ARE SUCCESSFUL
  • Southerners see their slaves as property, which could be moved with them to new lands
  • The Missouri Compromise (1820) – Maine (FREE) and Missouri (SLAVE) enter the Union
  • The Compromise of 1850 – California (FREE) and Congress makes no laws regarding territories won in M/A War
  • Wilmot Proviso & Kansas-Nebraska Act further divide the country
the wilmot proviso 1846
The Wilmot Proviso (1846)
  • Slavery banned in any land won from Mexico
  • Proposal broke up parties along sectional lines
  • Failed to become law

Before Mexican War was over, future of SW lands caused strong debate in the U.S.

1846: Pennsylvania Whig congressman David Wilmot proposed the Wilmot Proviso


Kansas-Nebraska Act

I. The Nebraska Territory was divided into two parts: Nebraska (NE) and Kansas (KS).


Kansas-Nebraska Act

II. The people of each territory voted on whether or not to allow slavery. (popular sovereignty)


* The Kansas-Nebraska Act violated the Missouri Compromise. Both territories were north of 36 , 30’ N and should NOT have been allowed to have slaves.


“Bleeding Kansas”

Before the vote on slavery:

• Northerners crossed the border to keep KS a free state.

• Southerners crossed the border to make KS a slave state.

• Both sides claimed victory on the vote!

what effect did the kansas nebraska act have on the missouri compromise
What effect did the Kansas-Nebraska Act have on the Missouri Compromise?

The Kansas-Nebraska Act illegally repealed the Missouri Compromise.

what was the result of the kansas nebraska act
What was the result of the Kansas-Nebraska Act?

Civil war between pro-slavery and anti-slavery settlers – over 200 people died

Wilmot Proviso & The Kansas-Nebraska Act will be the issues on which the Republican Party will be founded.

Discovery of gold in

California tips the

balance of power!

the california gold rush
The California Gold Rush
  • John Sutter was a Swiss immigrant to California in 1839 – owned 1000’s of acres, cattle, and many people working for him
    • In late 1847 Sutter hired James Marshall to build a saw mill

on the American

River to provide

lumber for Sutter’s

growing ranch

the california gold rush1
The California Gold Rush

On January 24, 1848 with the sawmill almost finished Marshall looked down and …"I reached my hand down and picked it up; it made my heart thump, for I was certain it was gold. The piece was about half the size and shape of a pea. Then I saw another."

california gold rush
California Gold Rush
  • News of the gold was not spread by Sutter or Marshall
  • News was spread by San Francisco merchant Samuel Brannan
  • News spread to the

east coast and was

published in


the california gold rush2
The California Gold Rush
  • Horace Greeley of the New York Tribune: "Fortune lies upon the surface of the earth as plentiful as the mud in our streets. We look for an addition within the next four years equal to at least One Thousand Million of Dollars to the gold in circulation."
the california gold rush3
The California Gold Rush

By 1849 the country was gripped in gold “fever”

Farmers left their fields, merchants closed their shops, soldiers left their posts – and all made plans to go to California

the california gold rush4
The California Gold Rush

The California Gold Rush was a mass migration of people from the eastern U.S. and around the world looking for easy riches

Called forty-niners, the gold seekers swelled the population of California from 14,000 in 1847 to 225,000 in five years

the california gold rush5
The California Gold Rush

Early miners able to pan for gold along the rivers of northern California – called placer mining

Conditions hard in the mining camps – no law, no sanitation, prices for food and supplies very high

Cholera, dysentery rampant

the california gold rush6
The California Gold Rush
  • Towns that started were accurately named
    • Hangtown, Gouge Eye, Rough and Ready, Whiskeytown – places to avoid, if not for the gold
    • Few miners got rich – merchants and service people got rich
  • When mining in the rivers played out, hard rock mining started
san francisco
San Francisco

More than half of the forty-niners came to California by ship – through San Francisco

Miners needed supplies, San Francisco was where they were bought


What were the

effects on

San Francisco?

effect of gold rush on sf
Effect of Gold Rush on SF

Legend spoke that you could walk from here to here without getting your feet wet, due to the number of abandoned ships

SF Bay became choked with hundreds of abandoned ships

effects of the gold rush
Effects of the Gold Rush
  • American miners forced out Mexicans and Chinese miners to reduce competition,
    • legislature levied a $20/month “foreign miners” tax to discourage miners from other countries.
  • Discouraged Chinese miners moved to San Francisco and formed Chinatown.
  • Native Americans either died from European diseases or were hunted down by miners –
    • In 1870, their population declined from 150,000 in 1860 to 58,000 in 1870.
effects of the gold rush1
Effects of the Gold Rush
  • Californios (Mexican Californians) lost their lands
  • California applied for statehood as free state
  • Union comprised of 15 free states, 15 slave
  • Admission of California in 1850 intensified debate over slavery

The Gold Rush

upset the delicate

balance between

free & slave - everyone

was affected, and no

one was spared

from its effects!