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High Tech Product Design and Rapid Prototyping ME221 - MBA 290M - INFOSYS 290.8 Prof. Paul Wright, A. Martin Berlin Chair in Mechanical Engineering Chief Scientist of CITRIS @ UC Berkeley Co-Director of the Berkeley Wireless Research Center
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Prof. Paul Wright, A. Martin Berlin Chair in Mechanical Engineering
Chief Scientist of CITRIS @ UC Berkeley
Co-Director of the Berkeley Wireless Research Center
Co-Director of the Berkeley Manufacturing Institute
Very difficult, given the present state of other companies already in the field
Will your company use motes for a product that assumes an infrastructure?
Challenging to work with big governments, bureaucracies (e.g City of Berkeley, or BART)…
Will you be a “smart-design” team like IDEO or Frog design that creates a product around a base-station and mobile system that can be used in a defined setting?...
More likely to work…Product constraints
Wednesday 9/20 –
Group’s ‘first-idea’ on poster board
“Glimpse Collage” 5%
Collection of photographs at first sight but with a glimpse of what people need --- or what they might do with a proposed productThis week’s homework (Wed.)
200 word Scenario +
8-12 frame Story Board; these three items = 10%
The Story Board is laid out to “tell a story” like a cartoon strip tells a story maybe without any words
Our Story Board is not a cartoon in the “funny” sense (though it can be if you want to) … More that it can temporally tell how the user interacts with the product …Looking ahead one assignment
Boy, I’m glad you bought the Moisture Peak, look how good our tomatoes turned out this season!!
The computer monitors one or more sensors: temperature, light, sound, position, acceleration, vibration, stress, weight, pressure, humidity, etc.
The computer(s) connect to the base-station and/or other motes with a radio link. The radio link we will use allows a mote to transmit at a 50m range indoors / 125m range outdoors Power consumption, size and cost are the barriers to longer distances. Since a fundamental concept with motes is tiny size (and associated tiny cost), small and low-power radios are normal, not seen to be a disadvantage.Main “take away today” Since mid-90s = convergence of sensing, computing and communication
Possible to do some local averaging etc
Digital information shared with other computers in a network using “garbage band” frequencies
Point to point
Basic: Sensing + Local Computing + Communications + Computing at a Base Station including a Decision (e.g. sensor shows an “out of desirable range”)
ELECTRO MAGNETIC SPECTRUM
LF HF UHF MICROWAVE LIGHT XRAYS
Tmote Sky hardware platform
The Tmote Sky sensor suite is an on-board sensor suite that can be optionally included with each Tmote Sky device. The sensor suite includes humidity, temperature, photosynthetically active (PAR), and total solar radiation (TSR) sensors. The humidity and temperature sensor is produced by Sensirion, and the light sensors are produced by Hamamatsu.
Boomerang 2.0.4 software for sending information between motes (e.g. a temperature signal)Motes: http://www.moteiv.com/
e.g. your application
Trawler is a client of the serial forwarded server (makes sensor network data available to higher level applications)
Interoperability with other IEEE 802.15.4 devices
8MHz Texas Instruments MSP430 microcontroller (10kB RAM, 48kB Flash)
Integrated ADC, DAC, Supply Voltage Supervisor, and DMA Controller
Integrated onboard antenna with 50m range indoors / 125m range outdoors
Optional Integrated Humidity, Temperature, and Light sensorsIEEE 802.15.4 compliant device
Fast wakeup from sleep (<6us)
Hardware link-layer encryption and authentication
Programming and data collection via USB
16-pin expansion support and optional SMA antenna connector
TinyOS support : mesh networking and communication implementation
FCC modular certification : conforms to all US and Canada regulationsIEEE 802.15.4 compliant device
TinyOS is an event-based operating system intended for use in sensor networks. TinyOS uses a programming model that is based on the concept of ‘integrating\' software components together to produce a working program.
TinyOS is developed for ad-hoc communication, not reliability
Limited resources (memory) requiring very efficient resource allocation..http://www.tinyos.net/faq.html<<
Increasing Transmission Frequency
Shane Erickson, SUPERB
The initial deployments of RFID operating at a low frequency band and relying on magnetic coil readers
B. Ultra High Frequency UHF (900 MegaHertz)
Now the current area of excitement for identifying many tags at once over a greater distance than LF or HF and relying on a radio frequency readerComparison with RFID – 3 Main RFID types for purposes of “keeping things simple for now”
Needs large cage like structure adjacent to door to emit strong enough magnetic field to a remaining tag
One-bit (on/off) signal sounds alarm if a tag is present on item of clothing…And again to defuse any mystery about the technology…
Gets energy from reader to power antennae
Magnetic field loops around
Tags work because reader produces a magnetic field zone --- field changes enough to activate chips – (door reader)
Make larger antenna --- Or have a bigger flux to read further (Bigger net catches more fish)Low Frequency (125KHz) RFID
Magnetic fields are always present again
Pros Cons ---
Pro = High Frequency allow photo-etching of antenna and so tags are very cheap to manufacture
Trade offs = delicate so must be in limited package and the range of HF is often less than LF…
(LF = more kinds of form factor)High Frequency HF (13MHz)
2. An integrated circuit in the reader sends signals to an oscillator, creating an alternating current in the reader’s coilWhat happens inside the LF and HF readers?
4. So the magnetic coil in the reader interacts with the coil in the tag, to induce a current the causes a charge to flow into the capacitor on the tag…A diode in the tag’s circuit allows charge to build upWhen you walk up with your tag…
5. High and low levels of the digital signal from the IC – corresponding to the ones and zeros encoding the ID-number, turn the transistor on and offThe circuit for the tag ID…
7. Magnetic fluctuations cause changes in the current flow from the reader’s coil to the reader’s A/D converter, and these are in the same pattern as the ones and zeros transmitted by the tag.Transmission…