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Painterly Rendering with Curved Brush Strokes of Multiple Sizes 2003. 04. 17 Graphics & Media Research Lab 3 rd S. J. Kim Aaron Hertzmann, “Painterly Rendering with Curved Brush Strokes of Multiple Sizes”, SIGGRAH 98 Conference proceedings Abstract Multiple rendering passes

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Painterly rendering with curved brush strokes of multiple sizes l.jpg

Painterly Rendering with Curved Brush Strokes of Multiple Sizes

2003. 04. 17

Graphics & Media Research Lab

3rd S. J. Kim


Slide2 l.jpg


Abstract l.jpg
Abstract Strokes of Multiple Sizes”, SIGGRAH 98

  • Multiple rendering passes

    • Larger strokes first

    • Add detail with smaller strokes

  • Curved brush strokes

    • Makes different styles possible

  • A style

    • An intuitive set of parameters to the painting algorithm that a designer can adjust to vary the style of painting


Painting techniques l.jpg

PAINTING TECHNIQUES Strokes of Multiple Sizes”, SIGGRAH 98


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Varying the brush size Strokes of Multiple Sizes”, SIGGRAH 98

  • Begin a painting as a rough sketch → small brush (to add detail) “yields desirable visual effects”


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  • Algorithm Strokes of Multiple Sizes”, SIGGRAH 98

    • Largest to smallest

    • The initial canvas is a constant color image

fσ – some constant factor


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  • A jittered grid Strokes of Multiple Sizes”, SIGGRAH 98

    • They search each grid point’s neighborhood to find the nearby point with the greatest error, and paint at this position

    • All strokes for the layer are planned at once before rendering


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  • The following formula for color difference is used to create the difference image

    |(r1, g1, b1) – (r2, g2, b2)| = ((r1 – r2)2 + (g1 – g2)2 + (b1 – b2)2)1/2

  • Z-buffer – avoid the overhead of storing and randomizing a large list of brush strokes

  • “makeStroke()” in the right code listing is a generic procedure that places a stroke on the canvas beginning at (x1, y1), given a reference image and a brush radius. fg is a constant grid size factor.


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Creating curved brush strokes the difference image

  • A method for painting long, continuous curves

  • Focus on painting solid strokes of constant thickness to approximate the coloration of the reference image

  • An element

    • Color & thickness

    • Dragging a circular brush mask along the sweep of the spline

  • In the system

    • Limit brush strokes to constant color

    • Use image gradients to guide stroke placement


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Algorithm the difference image

Begin (x0, y0) with brush radius

Represented as a list f control points, a color, and a brush radius

(x0, y0) added to the spline

The color of the reference image at (x0, y0) is used as the color of the spline

Exaggerate or reduce the brush stroke curvature by applying an infinite impulse response filter to the stroke directions

Previous stroke direction

D’i-1 = (dx’i-1, dy’i-1)

A current stroke direction

Di = (dxi, dyi)


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D’ the difference imagei = fcDi+(l-fc)D’i-1=(fcdxi+(1-fc)dx’i-1,

fcdyi+(1-)dy’i-1)

The filter is controlled by a single predetermined filter constant, fc.


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RENDERING STYLES the difference image


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  • Intuitiveness propose the use of style parameters to control the rendering process

    • correspond to a visual quality of the painting.

    • intuitive to an artist without any technical computer knowledge.

  • Consistency

    • Styles should produce the same “visual character” for different images.

  • Robustness

    • Each parameter should produce reasonable results over a predetermined range, without “breaking” for some values.

  • Independence

    • Style parameters should be independent of one another.


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Some Style Parameters propose the use of style parameters to control the rendering process

  • Approximation threshold (T)

  • Brush sizes

    • Smallest brush radius (R1)

    • Number of Brushes (n)

    • Size Ratio (Ri+1/Ri)

  • Curvature Filter (fc)

  • Blur Factor(fσ)

  • Minimum and maximum stroke lengths

  • Opacity (α)

  • Grid size (fg)

  • Color Jitter – hue (jh), saturation (js), value (jv), red (jr), green (jg), blue (jb) color components


Experiments l.jpg
Experiments propose the use of style parameters to control the rendering process

  • The styles are defined as follows.

    “Impressionist” — A normal painting style, with no curvature filter, and no random color. T = 100, R=(8,4,2), fc=1, fs=.5, a=1, fg=1, minLength=4, maxLength=16

    “Expressionist” — Elongated brush strokes. Jitter is added to color value. T = 50, R=(8,4,2), fc=.25, fs=.5, a=.7, fg=1, minLength=10, maxLength=16, jv=.5

    “Colorist Wash” — Loose, semi-transparent brush strokes. Random jitter is added to R, G, and B color components. T = 200, R=(8,4,2), fc=1, fs=.5, a=.5, fg=1, minLength=4, maxLength=16, jr=jg=jb=.3

    “Pointillist” — Densely-placed circles with random hue and saturation. T = 100, R=(4,2), fc=1, fs=.5, a=1, fg=.5, minLength=0, maxLength=0, jv=1, jh=.3. (This is similar to the Pointillist style provided by [22].)


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Applying different painterly styles propose the use of style parameters to control the rendering process.Left column: “Impressionist.”

Middle column: “Expressionist.”

Right column: “Colorist Wash.” Note that the styles have a consistent visual appearance when applied to different images.


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Applying different painterly styles propose the use of style parameters to control the rendering process.Left column: “Impressionist.”

Middle column: “Expressionist.”

Right column: “Colorist Wash.” Note that the styles have a consistent visual appearance when applied to different images.


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Interpolating rendering styles propose the use of style parameters to control the rendering process. Images (a) and (c) are rendered in the “Colorist Wash” and “Pointillist” styles,

respectively. The average of their parameters was used to produce the style for (b). (The number of layers (n) was rounded up to 3.)


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