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Observations:. Sun rises & sets every day Sun rises in East & sets in West Sun’s path in the sky is an arc Sun is at different angular altitudes in the sky at different times. The sun is never directly above (at zenith) in NY. Astronomy.

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Observations:

  • Sun rises & sets every day

  • Sun rises in East & sets in West

  • Sun’s path in the sky is an arc

  • Sun is at different angular altitudes in the sky at different times.

  • The sun is never directly above (at zenith) in NY.



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  • The Geocentric theory explains all of these phenomena. Since movement of the Earth cannot be felt early scientists thought that the Earth was stationary and everything else moved around us.

  • The geocentric theory says that the Earth is at the center of the solar system/ universe.

  • Lets draw a little...


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The Geocentric Theory does not explain this:

  • Foucault Pendulum: The first good evidence of the Earth's rotation was provided by a swinging pendulum. The pendulum would continue to swing in the same direction while the Earth rotated beneath it. A more recent source of evidence of rotation is the swirling pattern of weather systems seen by satellites.

  • The Coriolis Effect makes the Foucault Pendulum work. The rotation of the Earth puts a "spin" on the air movement which causes a curve in the travel direction. In the Northern Hemisphere the turn is towards the objects right.


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  • Galileo disproved the geocentric theory. He was the first to turn the telescope to the sky (he did not invent the telescope) for the purposes of Scientific observations.

  • The moons of Jupiter orbit an object other than Earth. Galileo noticed that the four visible moons of Jupiter appeared to orbit around Jupiter and therefore did not revolve around the Earth.

Jupiter’s Moons


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  • The demonstrated that Venus orbited around the sun.Heliocentric Theory explains all observations made from Earth.

  • “Heliocentric” makes the sun the center of attention rather than the earth.

  • And more drawing.


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Personal Computers much sense the Heliocentric Theory makes:

Colorization of black and white movies

Solar powered calculators

Aluminized bags for snack food

Weather satellites

Halogen lights for cars

Sports domes

Microwave Ovens

Pocket calculators

Phone calls by satellite

Laser guided missiles

"Mylar" balloons

"Blue Blocker" sunglasses

Digital watches and thermometers

"DirecTV", "Dish Network", etc

"Kevlar" for bullet proof vests

"Mini Mag" flashlights

Fishing line

Fiber optics for phone calls

"Vortec" engines in GM cars

"Ovation" guitars and helicopter blades

Medical scanners

Electronic ignition in automobiles

Laser scanners in stores

"Bulb Miser" devices for long life light bulbs

Weather Maps on television

Juice boxes for "Hawaiian Punch", etc

"The Patch" medical device

Breathing systems for Mt. Everest climbers, Scuba divers and firefighters

“Flexon" eyeglasses and dental braces

Cellular phones and beepers

Cable Television, H B O, Showtime, etc

Pens that write upside down and under water

Anti corrosive paint for bridges, boats & Statue of Liberty

Scratch resistant coatings on sunglasses

Football helmets for the NFL

Pacemaker batteries that last 20 years and can be recharged through the skin.

Compact Disks

GPS Navigation Systems

The value of the space program


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  • Rotation - to spin around an axis. much sense the Heliocentric Theory makes:

  • How long does it take the Earth to spin once?

  • How many degrees is a full spin?

    360°÷24hours= 15°/hr

  • Earth spins at 15 degrees per hr


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Time zones much sense the Heliocentric Theory makes:

  • How to figure out what the time difference is and are you E or W.


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The Earth’s Rotation does not have the same speed all over

At the equator, rotation is 40,074 km/day or 1670 km/hr

At NY

31,200 km/day or 1300 km/hr

At the poles

0 km/day or 0 km/hr


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As the Earth revolves around the sun, different constellations are visible in the night sky.

As viewed from Earth, the sun is passing through Leo (even though you can’t see the stars during the day.


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  • The constellations are visible in the night sky.Axis of Rotation is the imaginary line that the Earth turns about.

  • The axis always points to the North Star. This is called Parallelism of the Earth's axis.

  • The imaginary surface of the Earth's yearly trip around the sun is the Plane of Earth's Orbit.


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Warning! constellations are visible in the night sky.

The following statement sounds crazy but you'll understand it if you read it slowly!

"The axis is tilted by 23.5° from the perpendicular to the plane of its orbit."

Demonstration


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Seasons constellations are visible in the night sky.

Not drawn to scale.

The orbit is not shaped like this.



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Summer Solstice mean.

  • June 21

  • N. Pole is tilted towards the sun

  • Sun is highest in the sky in NY

  • Longest day, shortest night

  • Sun is directly over the Tropic of Cancer.


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Fall (autumnal) Equinox mean.

  • September 23

  • Equal day and night

  • Sun is directly over the equator


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Winter Solstice mean.

  • December 21

  • N. Pole is tilted away from the sun

  • Shortest day, longest night

  • Sun is directly over the Tropic of Capricorn


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Spring (vernal) Equinox mean.

  • March 21

  • Sun is directly over the Equator

  • Equal day and night


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Zenith mean.

Summer Solstice

June 21

Equinoxen

March 21/Sept 23

WinterSolstice

Dec 21


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HW on Seasons mean.

&

Day/Night



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An Encarta Animation mean.

OK, Girls & Boys, time for an activity on seasons and the tilt of the Earth!


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Note: mean.

  • The seasons are NOT caused by the distance from the sun.


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See what the Earth mean.

looks like RIGHT NOW


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Let’s see how the sun’s mean.

position changes

throughout the year


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Time for a lab mean.

  • Take out lab 8-3: Ellipses



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Perihelion Jan 3 93,000,000 miles mean.

Aphelion July 4 95,000,000 miles

Not drawn to scale! The shape is more like a circle


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Kepler’s Laws mean.

  • 1) All planets travel in elliptical orbits with the sun at one focus.

  • Note: The Earth's orbit is so close to a perfect circle that it can't be distinguished with the human eye.

See for yourself


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Keppler’s Second Law


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March planet and the sun sweeps equal areas in equal times.

April

February

May

June

January

July

August

September

December

October

November


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An “ planet and the sun sweeps equal areas in equal times.AU” is an astronomical unit, which is the average distance from the sun to the Earth.


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Two videos planet and the sun sweeps equal areas in equal times.

  • The Powers of Ten

  • Bill Nye: The Moon


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The Moon planet and the sun sweeps equal areas in equal times.

  • The moon revolves around the Earth once a month (moonth).

  • Moon rises 50 minutes later every day.

  • It can be seen during the day just about as much as the night.


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Phases of the moon handout planet and the sun sweeps equal areas in equal times.

Sun: way the heck to the left


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R planet and the sun sweeps equal areas in equal times.

L


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R planet and the sun sweeps equal areas in equal times.

L

Last Half/ Last Quarter

Waning Crescent

Waning Gibbous

New

Full

Waxing Crescent

Waxing Gibbous

First Half/ First Quarter


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Notice the changing diameter of the Moon during the 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.


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The Names of the Full Moons 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.

Here are the traditional names given to each month's full moon from the "Old Farmer's Almanac":

January Wolf Moon

February Snow Moon

March Worm Moon

April Pink Moon

May Flower Moon

June Strawberry Moon

July Buck Moon

August Sturgeon Moon

September Harvest Moon

October Hunter's Moon

November Beaver Moon

December Cold Moon


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Eclipses 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.

  • A lunar eclipse occurs when the Earth blocks out the Moon's sunlight. The moon goes into the Earth's shadow.

  • Lunar eclipses happen during a Full Moon.

penumbra

Earth

umbra

moon

sun


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  • A 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.solar eclipse is when the moon blocks sunlight from reaching the Earth.

  • Solar Eclipses happen during a New Moon.

  • Eclipses do not occur every time there is a full or new moon because the moon's orbit around the Earth is inclined.

moon

sun

penumbra

umbra

Earth


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A view of a Solar Eclipse as Seen from Space 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.

  • http://www.stormcenter.com/media/060331/


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  • Angular size of the moon activity 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.


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Tides 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.

  • The strength of gravity depends on how close two objects are and their masses.

m1 and m2 are masses of the objects

d is the distance


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Let’s draw a diagram of how the moon causes tides! 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.

Lets draw a diagram of what the tides look like.


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  • A 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.Spring Tide is caused by a full moon and a new moon. The water “springs” from its highest level to its lowest for the month.

  • A Neap Tide is caused by the half moon phases. The high tide is not so high and the low is not so low.


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The Planets 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.

  • Take out Lab 8-5: The Planets

The Solar System


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Time for a sing-a-long 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.


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Comets 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.

  • Chunk of ice and dirt following an elongated elliptical orbit.

  • DVD Weather- Wind Chp 9 (Solar Wind)

  • Has a tail only when it comes close to the sun.

  • The heat melts it and the solar wind sweeps the tail away.

  • The tail always points away from the sun.

Encarta Solar System:

Great Comets!


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Meteors 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.

  • Meteor Showers result mainly from debris from the orbit of the comet.

  • If the Earth crosses the path, the debris will fall to Earth as a visible meteor or “shooting star.”

  • If the rock is big enough it will survive the fiery entry into the atmosphere and hit the surface as a meteorite.


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Video on what causes a meteor shower 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.


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Stars 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.

  • Circumpolar and star trails

Circumpolar

Constallations


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Stellar Fusion 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.


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Hydrogen nucleus (Proton) 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.

Helium


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2.016 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.

Mass=1.008

Mass=4.0026

Mass=1.008

1.008 x 4 = 4.032

4.032 – 4.0026 = .0294


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E=mc 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.2

E = energy

m = mass

c2 = speed of light squared

.0294 x 186,000 x 186,000 = a lot from a little


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Lab: Stellar Classification 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.


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Short video on the formation of the Earth 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.


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The Life of a Star 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.

Cloud of gas

Contracts

Heats up

Fusion


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If the star is 7x the sun or smaller: 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.

Swell up to a red giant

Shrink to a white dwarf

Slowly cool and die


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If the star is 7x the sun or larger: 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.

Swell up to a red giant

Shrink collapse and explode as a supernova


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If the star is 7x the sun or larger: 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.

Swell up to a red giant

Shrink collapse and explode as a supernova


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If the star is 7x the sun or larger: 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.

Swell up to a red giant

Shrink collapse and explode as a supernova


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If the star is 7x the sun or larger: 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.

Swell up to a red giant

Shrink collapse and explode as a supernova


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If the star is 7x the sun or larger: 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.

Swell up to a red giant

Shrink collapse and explode as a supernova


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If the star is 7x the sun or larger: 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.

Swell up to a red giant

Shrink collapse and explode as a supernova


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If the star is 7x the sun or larger: 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.

Swell up to a red giant

Shrink collapse and explode as a supernova


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If the star is 7x the sun or larger: 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.

Swell up to a red giant

Shrink collapse and explode as a supernova

Dies as a rapidly spinning core…


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Or better yet! 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.

A black hole!


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Time for a sing-a-long 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.


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  • DVD: The Right Stuff 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.

The Doppler Shift


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Lab: Spectral Analysis 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.


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Deep Space 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.


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The End 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon 'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.



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Spring warping!)

March 21

Summer

June 21

Winter

Dec 21

Fall

Sept. 23


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North Pole warping!)

NP 24hr

LI 16hr

Eq 12hr

SP 0hr

Summer June 21

South Pole


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North Pole warping!)

NP 12hr

LI 12hr

Eq 12hr

SP 12hr

Equinoxes

March 21/

Sept23

South Pole


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North Pole warping!)

NP 0hr

LI 8hr

Eq 12hr

SP 24hr

Winter Solstice

Dec 21

South Pole


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