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Observations:. Sun rises & sets every day Sun rises in East & sets in West Sun’s path in the sky is an arc Sun is at different angular altitudes in the sky at different times. The sun is never directly above (at zenith) in NY. Astronomy.

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observations
Observations:
  • Sun rises & sets every day
  • Sun rises in East & sets in West
  • Sun’s path in the sky is an arc
  • Sun is at different angular altitudes in the sky at different times.
  • The sun is never directly above (at zenith) in NY.
slide4
The Geocentric theory explains all of these phenomena. Since movement of the Earth cannot be felt early scientists thought that the Earth was stationary and everything else moved around us.
  • The geocentric theory says that the Earth is at the center of the solar system/ universe.
  • Lets draw a little...
the geocentric theory does not explain this
The Geocentric Theory does not explain this:
  • Foucault Pendulum: The first good evidence of the Earth\'s rotation was provided by a swinging pendulum. The pendulum would continue to swing in the same direction while the Earth rotated beneath it. A more recent source of evidence of rotation is the swirling pattern of weather systems seen by satellites.
  • The Coriolis Effect makes the Foucault Pendulum work. The rotation of the Earth puts a "spin" on the air movement which causes a curve in the travel direction. In the Northern Hemisphere the turn is towards the objects right.
slide6
Galileo disproved the geocentric theory. He was the first to turn the telescope to the sky (he did not invent the telescope) for the purposes of Scientific observations.
  • The moons of Jupiter orbit an object other than Earth. Galileo noticed that the four visible moons of Jupiter appeared to orbit around Jupiter and therefore did not revolve around the Earth.

Jupiter’s Moons

slide7
Galileo also observed the "phases of Venus" which demonstrated that Venus orbited around the sun.
  • Let’s draw some more.
slide8
The Heliocentric Theory explains all observations made from Earth.
  • “Heliocentric” makes the sun the center of attention rather than the earth.
  • And more drawing.
slide9
Here\'s an article written by Benjamin Franklin about how much sense the Heliocentric Theory makes:

The Whimsical Cook

the value of the space program
Personal Computers

Colorization of black and white movies

Solar powered calculators

Aluminized bags for snack food

Weather satellites

Halogen lights for cars

Sports domes

Microwave Ovens

Pocket calculators

Phone calls by satellite

Laser guided missiles

"Mylar" balloons

"Blue Blocker" sunglasses

Digital watches and thermometers

"DirecTV", "Dish Network", etc

"Kevlar" for bullet proof vests

"Mini Mag" flashlights

Fishing line

Fiber optics for phone calls

"Vortec" engines in GM cars

"Ovation" guitars and helicopter blades

Medical scanners

Electronic ignition in automobiles

Laser scanners in stores

"Bulb Miser" devices for long life light bulbs

Weather Maps on television

Juice boxes for "Hawaiian Punch", etc

"The Patch" medical device

Breathing systems for Mt. Everest climbers, Scuba divers and firefighters

“Flexon" eyeglasses and dental braces

Cellular phones and beepers

Cable Television, H B O, Showtime, etc

Pens that write upside down and under water

Anti corrosive paint for bridges, boats & Statue of Liberty

Scratch resistant coatings on sunglasses

Football helmets for the NFL

Pacemaker batteries that last 20 years and can be recharged through the skin.

Compact Disks

GPS Navigation Systems

The value of the space program
slide12
Rotation - to spin around an axis.
  • How long does it take the Earth to spin once?
  • How many degrees is a full spin?

360°÷24hours= 15°/hr

  • Earth spins at 15 degrees per hr
time zones
Time zones
  • How to figure out what the time difference is and are you E or W.
the earth s rotation does not have the same speed all over
The Earth’s Rotation does not have the same speed all over

At the equator, rotation is 40,074 km/day or 1670 km/hr

At NY

31,200 km/day or 1300 km/hr

At the poles

0 km/day or 0 km/hr

slide15
Revolution- to orbit around an object
  • The Earth revolves around the sun in 365 ¼ days.
  • Sidereal Day vs solar day
slide16

As the Earth revolves around the sun, different constellations are visible in the night sky.

As viewed from Earth, the sun is passing through Leo (even though you can’t see the stars during the day.

slide17
The Axis of Rotation is the imaginary line that the Earth turns about.
  • The axis always points to the North Star. This is called Parallelism of the Earth\'s axis.
  • The imaginary surface of the Earth\'s yearly trip around the sun is the Plane of Earth\'s Orbit.
slide18

Warning!

The following statement sounds crazy but you\'ll understand it if you read it slowly!

"The axis is tilted by 23.5° from the perpendicular to the plane of its orbit."

Demonstration

seasons
Seasons

Not drawn to scale.

The orbit is not shaped like this.

summer solstice
Summer Solstice
  • June 21
  • N. Pole is tilted towards the sun
  • Sun is highest in the sky in NY
  • Longest day, shortest night
  • Sun is directly over the Tropic of Cancer.
fall autumnal equinox
Fall (autumnal) Equinox
  • September 23
  • Equal day and night
  • Sun is directly over the equator
winter solstice
Winter Solstice
  • December 21
  • N. Pole is tilted away from the sun
  • Shortest day, longest night
  • Sun is directly over the Tropic of Capricorn
spring vernal equinox
Spring (vernal) Equinox
  • March 21
  • Sun is directly over the Equator
  • Equal day and night
slide25

Zenith

Summer Solstice

June 21

Equinoxen

March 21/Sept 23

WinterSolstice

Dec 21

slide26

HW on Seasons

&

Day/Night

slide28

An Encarta Animation

OK, Girls & Boys, time for an activity on seasons and the tilt of the Earth!

slide30
Note:
  • The seasons are NOT caused by the distance from the sun.
slide31

See what the Earth

looks like RIGHT NOW

slide32

Let’s see how the sun’s

position changes

throughout the year

time for a lab
Time for a lab
  • Take out lab 8-3: Ellipses
slide35

Perihelion Jan 3 93,000,000 miles

Aphelion July 4 95,000,000 miles

Not drawn to scale! The shape is more like a circle

kepler s laws
Kepler’s Laws
  • 1) All planets travel in elliptical orbits with the sun at one focus.
  • Note: The Earth\'s orbit is so close to a perfect circle that it can\'t be distinguished with the human eye.

See for yourself

slide37
2) Each planet travels in such a way that a line joining the planet and the sun sweeps equal areas in equal times.

Keppler’s Second Law

slide38

March

April

February

May

June

January

July

August

September

December

October

November

slide39
3) Relationship between distance and period:

P2 = D3

Where P is the Period in Earth Years

And D is the distance in “AU’s”

two videos
Two videos
  • The Powers of Ten
  • Bill Nye: The Moon
the moon
The Moon
  • The moon revolves around the Earth once a month (moonth).
  • Moon rises 50 minutes later every day.
  • It can be seen during the day just about as much as the night.
phases of the moon handout
Phases of the moon handout

Sun: way the heck to the left

slide46

R

L

slide47

R

L

Last Half/ Last Quarter

Waning Crescent

Waning Gibbous

New

Full

Waxing Crescent

Waxing Gibbous

First Half/ First Quarter

slide49

Notice the changing diameter of the Moon during the \'moonth\'. As the Moon\'s orbit brings it closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon \'rocks\' up and down and back and forth. That happens because the Moon\'s orbit takes it above the Earth\'s equator (allowing us to see more of the south polar region) and below the equator revealing more of the north polar region of the Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.

the names of the full moons
The Names of the Full Moons

Here are the traditional names given to each month\'s full moon from the "Old Farmer\'s Almanac":

January Wolf Moon

February Snow Moon

March Worm Moon

April Pink Moon

May Flower Moon

June Strawberry Moon

July Buck Moon

August Sturgeon Moon

September Harvest Moon

October Hunter\'s Moon

November Beaver Moon

December Cold Moon

eclipses
Eclipses
  • A lunar eclipse occurs when the Earth blocks out the Moon\'s sunlight. The moon goes into the Earth\'s shadow.
  • Lunar eclipses happen during a Full Moon.

penumbra

Earth

umbra

moon

sun

slide53
A solar eclipse is when the moon blocks sunlight from reaching the Earth.
  • Solar Eclipses happen during a New Moon.
  • Eclipses do not occur every time there is a full or new moon because the moon\'s orbit around the Earth is inclined.

moon

sun

penumbra

umbra

Earth

a view of a solar eclipse as seen from space
A view of a Solar Eclipse as Seen from Space
  • http://www.stormcenter.com/media/060331/
tides
Tides
  • The strength of gravity depends on how close two objects are and their masses.

m1 and m2 are masses of the objects

d is the distance

slide57

Let’s draw a diagram of how the moon causes tides!

Lets draw a diagram of what the tides look like.

slide58
A Spring Tide is caused by a full moon and a new moon. The water “springs” from its highest level to its lowest for the month.
  • A Neap Tide is caused by the half moon phases. The high tide is not so high and the low is not so low.
the planets
The Planets
  • Take out Lab 8-5: The Planets

The Solar System

comets
Comets
  • Chunk of ice and dirt following an elongated elliptical orbit.
  • DVD Weather- Wind Chp 9 (Solar Wind)
  • Has a tail only when it comes close to the sun.
  • The heat melts it and the solar wind sweeps the tail away.
  • The tail always points away from the sun.

Encarta Solar System:

Great Comets!

meteors
Meteors
  • Meteor Showers result mainly from debris from the orbit of the comet.
  • If the Earth crosses the path, the debris will fall to Earth as a visible meteor or “shooting star.”
  • If the rock is big enough it will survive the fiery entry into the atmosphere and hit the surface as a meteorite.
stars
Stars
  • Circumpolar and star trails

Circumpolar

Constallations

slide72

2.016

Mass=1.008

Mass=4.0026

Mass=1.008

1.008 x 4 = 4.032

4.032 – 4.0026 = .0294

slide73

E=mc2

E = energy

m = mass

c2 = speed of light squared

.0294 x 186,000 x 186,000 = a lot from a little

the life of a star
The Life of a Star

Cloud of gas

Contracts

Heats up

Fusion

slide79

If the star is 7x the sun or smaller:

Swell up to a red giant

Shrink to a white dwarf

Slowly cool and die

slide80

If the star is 7x the sun or larger:

Swell up to a red giant

Shrink collapse and explode as a supernova

slide81

If the star is 7x the sun or larger:

Swell up to a red giant

Shrink collapse and explode as a supernova

slide82

If the star is 7x the sun or larger:

Swell up to a red giant

Shrink collapse and explode as a supernova

slide83

If the star is 7x the sun or larger:

Swell up to a red giant

Shrink collapse and explode as a supernova

slide84

If the star is 7x the sun or larger:

Swell up to a red giant

Shrink collapse and explode as a supernova

slide85

If the star is 7x the sun or larger:

Swell up to a red giant

Shrink collapse and explode as a supernova

slide86

If the star is 7x the sun or larger:

Swell up to a red giant

Shrink collapse and explode as a supernova

slide87

If the star is 7x the sun or larger:

Swell up to a red giant

Shrink collapse and explode as a supernova

Dies as a rapidly spinning core…

slide88

Or better yet!

A black hole!

slide90

DVD: The Right Stuff

The Doppler Shift

slide95

Spring

March 21

Summer

June 21

Winter

Dec 21

Fall

Sept. 23

slide96

North Pole

NP 24hr

LI 16hr

Eq 12hr

SP 0hr

Summer June 21

South Pole

slide97

North Pole

NP 12hr

LI 12hr

Eq 12hr

SP 12hr

Equinoxes

March 21/

Sept23

South Pole

slide98

North Pole

NP 0hr

LI 8hr

Eq 12hr

SP 24hr

Winter Solstice

Dec 21

South Pole

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