Municipal development partnership eastern and southern africa
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Municipal Development Partnership Eastern and Southern Africa.  (5 th Urban and City Management Course for Africa, Face to Face and Distance Learning version) Course module- 5 Networking as a Component of Urban Management. By: Eyob Dolicho (M.A), MoFA. Table of contents.

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Municipal development partnership eastern and southern africa

Municipal Development Partnership Eastern and Southern Africa

 (5th Urban and City Management Course for Africa, Face to Face and Distance Learning version)

Course module- 5

Networking as a Component of Urban Management.

By: Eyob Dolicho (M.A), MoFA


Table of contents

Table of contents

  • 1. Introduction and background

    • Background

    • Content of the Paper

  • 2. Decentralization and the Concept of Urban Net working

    • Decentralization and the concept of Urban Governance

    • The Concept of Urban Net working

  • 3. Countries and Institutions Experience on Urban Net working

    • Institutions Involved in Urban Net working

    • The Baltic Sea Countries Urban Networking

  • 4. Decentralization and Urban Net Working Practice in Ethiopia.

    • Background

    • Major Common Problems Faced by Municipalities.

    • The Intergovernmental and municipal Relations.

    • Deepening Decentralization and Urban Net working.

  • 5. Conclusive Remarks.


  • Chapter one

    Chapter one

    • Since the last many decades, the world has passed through different eras.

      • Agricultural era,

      • Industrial era

      • Service era,

      • Communication era and now we are in the

      • Information era.

  • Decentralization

  • Urban Management

  • Net working


  • Municipal development partnership eastern and southern africa

    Ideological:

    • -Distrust or lack of confidence in central government

    • -Belief in value of individual and local responsibility and autonomy

    • -Reaction against centralist or Authoritarian forms of government

      b)Political :

    • -Autonomy or representation

    • -Democratization ( political Participation)

    • -Central Government or offloading of expensive or politically troublesome functions

      c)Efficientand effective provision of public service and Infrastructure

  • -Optimizing hierarchy of service delivery

    • -Tailoring services to local needs and conditions

    • -Improving infrastructure maintenance.

    • -Increasing competitiveness in service provision among government units and

    • between government and private sectors.

    • -Make bureaucracies more customer oriented


  • Decentralization

    Decentralization

    • Political Decentralization,

    • Administrative decentralization,

    • Fiscal Decentralization

    • Economic Decentralization.


    The urban management program

    The Urban management program

    • UMP was launched in 1986 as an initiative of UNDP, UN UN-Habitat, the World Bank and several bilateral partners(UK, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands and Germany).

    • It is one of the largest Urban Global technical assistance programmes of the UN systems.

    • UMP develops and applies urban management knowledge in the fields of

      • Participatory urban governance,

      • alleviation of urban poverty

      • urban environmental management and

      • Urban infrastructure management

      • Municipal Finance Management

      • Urban Net-working


    Municipal development partnership eastern and southern africa

    • The program works in 120cities in 57 in Africa, the Arab states, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean developing countries

    • Net working: is a relationship established by two individuals or certain groups of people or institutions for attaining a certain objective or purpose.

    • The overall aim of urban networking is to achieve synergistic advantages by way of developing co-operation and division of labor between cities or urban regions.

    • The cities or urban agglomerations are seen as administrative organizers in a networked system of co-operation, whereas the actual actors in networking are not just the institutions of the local administration, but also firms, universities and other educational establishments, local government offices, NGOs, etc.


    Municipal development partnership eastern and southern africa

    Cont.

    • Urban networking is therefore understood as both, a way of arranging strategic development within the urban region and as away of organizing co-operation between urban regions. These view points emphasize the (pro)active nature of networking.

    • Networking:is using your creative talents to help others achieve their goals as you cultivate a network of people strategically positioned to support you in your goals. expecting nothing in return!.

    • Urban net working is a relation ship established by urban practitioners and urban leaders who are well concerned for their urban centers to exchange experiences and create areas of co-operation.


    Basic principles to be followed in urban net working

    Basic Principles to be followed in Urban Net Working

    • The top ten Hot ideas or Net working Principles are:

    • Have a plan :

    • Develop a good self-introduction:a) your name.b) The name of your business.c) Specifically what you do.d)What kind of business leads you are looking for.

    • Carry lots of business cards:

    • Have fun!

    • Pay attention!

    • Be the host!

    • Ask for what you want!

    • Say, "Thank you!"

    • Avoid common crutches!

    • Follow-up!


    3 countries experience on urban net working

    3. Countries Experience On Urban Net Working

    • Institutions Involved in Urban Networking

      • Many countries have started initiating the urban net working

      • Such approach is not broadly practiced in many developing countries.

      • The current worlds globalization trend, decentralization of urban governance and service delivery, and promoting of urban management introducing the urban net working has become very important and inevitable both for developing and developed countries urban governments.


    Municipal development partnership eastern and southern africa

    Cont.

    • The Urban Issues of developing countries some international institutions have tried to give attentions, specifically for the urban centers of the developing countries.

    • These training and experience sharing institutions have played significant roles in creating awareness and political commitment among the participants, political leaders and Municipal leaders of the respective countries.

    • The contributions of IHS of the Netherlands, which is 40 years old, has played a very significant role in providing medium term, short term and long term training programs for housing and urban development experts, municipal officials and others who are involved in urban affairs.


    Municipal development partnership eastern and southern africa

    Cont.

    • IHS, which is now jointly operating with Erasmus University in the Netherlands, initially it started its program with five months short term training focusing on housing, planning and building.

    • Since 1990, the institution has changed its approach and has broaden its scope by incorporating long term MA and MSC on urban Environmental Management, Urban Housing and Urban Management.

    • The contribution of IHS for the current urban development and networking is highly remarkable and has impacted much in bringing changes in urban centers of developing countries.

    • The involvement of IHS in urban and housing related research activities has enabled the training institution to adopt an integrated training approach to integrate theory with practice.


    Municipal development partnership eastern and southern africa

    Cont.

    • SINA (Settlement Information Network Africa) news letter, is another important publication that has been playing important role in urban net working by creating forums where by the urban practitioners exchange their experiences and come together for their future further communication.

    • The Habitat debate, which is also an international and UN publication, is an important publication which is of a high quality and holds important articles, is delivered free of charge for Africans practitioners and who are members.

    • Some countries have already started developing the net working with their adjacent urban centers.

    • Initiatives made by the Baltic Sea Countries is a good beginning.


    The baltic sea countries urban networking

    The Baltic Sea Countries Urban Networking

    • The overall aim of urban networking is to achieve synergistic advantages by way of developing co-operation and division of labour between cities or urban regions.

    • The cities or urban agglomerations are seen as administrative organizers in a networked system of co-operation, whereas the actual actors in networking are not just the institutions of the local administration, but also firms, universities and other educational establishments, local government offices, NGOs, etc.

    • Urban networking is therefore understood as both, a way of arranging strategic development within the urban region and as a way of organizing co-operation between urban regions.


    Change in the logic of space

    Change in the logic of space

    • The traditional way of articulating space as places, is being complemented by a new dynamic which centers on interactions and communication, a space of flows.

    • This results in two-tiered system with the space of flows dominating in economic and public spheres, and the space of places still holding the upper hand in the sphere of social interaction.

    • Striking difference is the change in dependence from physical distance and hierarchical orders.

    • Urban interregional co-operation has profound implications to both policy-making and mobilizing regional resources. While solid economic base is fostering increasing interregional networking


    Municipal development partnership eastern and southern africa

    Cont.

    • City networks are increasingly becoming instruments and mechanisms of promotion of urban centers by exposing them into new, dense areas of relationships.

    • Networks also break the rigid model of regional and state aid to potentially empower new constellations, and help to get acknowledgement to particular interests in various regional spheres.

    • Networking in general also identifies the cities and the regions as active players in the construction of an internationalized space with a networking logic instead of a hierarchy.

    • The superimposition of the networks adds to the emerging territorial organization based on flows and defined by actors of the cities.


    Organizing capacity

    Organizing capacity:

    • The organizing capacity of a city or an urban region means "the ability to enlist all actors involved, and with their help generate new ideas and develop and implement a policy designed to respond to fundamental developments and create conditions for sustainable development" within an urban region

    • The most articulated internationalization strategies are

      • Increasing involvement in international projects

      • Improving relations with potential and existing partners

      • Increasing direct business-to-business and individual contacts

      • Increasing partnerships in international networks

      • Increasing partners' knowledge about the city's strengths

      • Developing new spheres and new forms of co-operation.


    Municipal development partnership eastern and southern africa

    Cont.

    • Cities have pointed out that new networking-oriented internationalization is a novel experience to the administrators.

    • Many people lack the skills

    • Many have not acquired the attitude

    • Education and awareness-rising are becoming increasingly important tools

    • In Baltic states the twin city agreements are often considered strategies as well as concrete actions.

    • Many small and medium-sized towns in the Nordic countries and Germany seem to have taken on to concentrate some of their internationalization resources in the direction of their Baltic twins.


    Municipal development partnership eastern and southern africa

    • Networking in the urban administration may be seen as a shift in three possible conceptual levels.

      • The simplest explanation presents networking as a new tool for administrative action.

      • A way of organizing urban activities,

      • A break with the hierarchic nature of "traditional" urban governance within the administration.

    • Orientation towards networking activities means creating and participating in cooperation which is from the start structured according to networking principles.


    Municipal development partnership eastern and southern africa

    Cont.

    • Active networking seems to help in counteracting and complementing increased competition between cities globally and regionally.

    • Competition is an unavoidable counterpart of cooperation.

    • Competition brings about proactive measures, so it may and regularly does - also boost networking.

    • Networking serves the smooth balancing between the two.

    • The cities who are best net workers are on many occasions also in competition with each others, but at the same time emphasize the co-operative nature of their mutual relations.

    • The system of networking cities is forming its own typologies.


    4 decentralization and urban networking practice in ethiopia

    4. Decentralization and Urban Networking Practice in Ethiopia

    • Back Ground

      • Ethiopia is a predominantly agrarian country.

      • About (16%?) of its population lives in urban areas (more than 900 urban areas.

      • 302 of these have municipal status.

      • The urbanization level of Ethiopia is low compared to the urbanization level of developing countries, which is 30%.

      • Out of the total urban population 33% is below poverty level .

      • infrastructure and service level, rural-urban interactions and exchanges are low.

      • the overall productivity is low.

      • Most of the urban settlements are administrative or Market centers, which provide services to their surroundings agricultural communities.


    Municipal development partnership eastern and southern africa

    • Both the country and the urban centers are under many challenges. Currently the country is facing :

      • Rapid urban growth (6%).

      • Population in small and medium centers will double in ten years time.

      • Low level of education and Health Services.

      • In adequate solid waste and collection and disposal.

      • Inadequate access to safe water and toilet facilities.

      • Serious shortage of housing which has resulted overcrowding

      • The increasingly growing unemployment, juvenile delinquency, crime and violence, homelessness

      • The previous centralized governance system had placed problems that are not easily reparable.


    The inter governmental and municipal relations

    The Inter Governmental and Municipal Relations.

    • In the time of Haileselasie all powers were concentrated in the hands of the Emperor.

    • The decree No.1/1942 and proclamation 74/1945 were drafted in such a way to place municipalities under the direct control of the central government.

    • Municipalities didn’t have legal personality (except AA)

    • The emperor appointed the town officer who was the leader of council and the chief executive.

    • The council functions under the direct control and command of the Ministry of Interior and the Governor general.

    • Municipalities were not authorized to borrow.

    • didn’t have any say over urban planning.


    Municipal development partnership eastern and southern africa

    • Since 1991, central governance system was replaced by decentralized governance system.

    • The new constitution of federal system has put an end to the age old arrangement ,

    • To day the constitution rests on the fundamental principle of self government by the people.

    • In order to change the bad images of municipalities and to improve their inefficiency and ineffectiveness in all types of service delivery, now Ethiopia has adopted a new constitution, which is profoundly progressive.

    • Self-rule has become the bed-rock of the political philosophy of the federal as well as the regional governments.


    Deepening decentralization and urban net working

    Deepening Decentralization and Urban net working

    • In Ethiopia, although decentralization is a new phenomena, government has established Ministry of Capacity Building (MCB) for deepening decentralization.

    • In particular to deepen decentralization process in urban center, UDCBO which operates in collaboration with MCB and the World Bank is established under MoFA.


    Municipal development partnership eastern and southern africa

    • To insure the deepening of decentralization, technical assistances are rendered for regional states. This involves the following major points, such as:

    • Review current policy, laws, institutional, regulatory framework;

      • Complete a process of developing policies and legislation;

      • Develop regulations make ULGA legislation effective: eg. Political/administrative structure & functions, institutional roles & responsibilities, financial regulations, personnel regulations;

      • Facilitate workshops, study tours and seminars;

      • Carry out analytic/ diagnostic studies;

      • Develop regional policies critical for DD;

      • Facilitate a process of review and decision-making, plus Regional training.


    Municipal development partnership eastern and southern africa

    • To be eligible for receiving technical assistance deepening decentralization certain preconditions are set by UDCBO of MoFA. Some of these are:

      • Agree to implement federal framework;

      • Demonstrate commitment;

      • Insure qualified and experienced urban local government administration (ULGA) staff;

      • Appoint a regional bureau head;

      • Sign RELG DD Participation agreement. (Ibid)


    The need for net working

    The Need for Net Working:

    • In the past few decades because of the low attentions given for urban development, leave alone the urban net working even the urban centers had no a say on their own affairs. In actual sense practical interventions are in support of urban activities is a matter of two to three years.

    • In these short period of time highly remarkable measures have been taken to improve the functioning of urban administration. The idea of cities co-operation and the need for net working is also part of the measures. In this regard the role played by UDCBO is remarkable.


    Municipal development partnership eastern and southern africa

    • UDCBO is building the capacity of urban centers and the sector,

    • Through the forums that are organized by MFA- UDCBO, urban centers get opportunities for establishing the urban net working systems.

    • Such national workshops and conferences have created opportunities for exchange of address for further communications and sharing of experiences.

    • Regional governments have also organized and launched different kinds regional workshops and conferences for experience sharing and to get inputs for what they have planned.

    • These national and workshops and conferences have given opportunities for creation of urban net working systems.

    • In the coming few years time the urban net working will be materialized.

    • The needs are adequately created.

    • The current decentralization has placed ground for such co-operation both technically, financially and administratively.


    5 conclusive remarks

    5. Conclusive Remarks

    • The need for net working is increasingly growing.

    • Decentralization is also another factor that is influencing urban governments to look for net working.

    • Developed countries particularly the USA, west European countries and others have already advanced the approach.

    • Baltic sea countries have established a strong net working forum.

    • The current information technology advancement and globalization

    • Developing countries are required to get aware of the net working as part of their Urban management program.


    Municipal development partnership eastern and southern africa

    Cont.

    • The organizing capacity of a city or an urban region means "the ability to enlist all actors involved, and with their help generate new ideas and develop and implement a policy designed to respond to fundamental developments and create conditions for sustainable development"

    • The urban governments of developing countries have already established fertile grounds that enables to organize and create urban net working systems.

    • Ethiopia is one of those countries, which is thinking and prepared to establish the urban net working.

    • The establishment of legal and institutional frame work for urban administrations also has given a good ground for the majority of urban governments.


    Municipal development partnership eastern and southern africa

    Cont.

    • The strong political willingness and governments commitment to bring changes in the urban centers is another good opportunity to establish and realize the urban net working.

    • The good leadership of the MFA and the existence of UDCBO will facilitate the implementation of the concept.

    • Therefore, it is hoped that with in a shorter period of time the Urban Centers are expected to establish urban net working system and incorporate as part of urban management program.


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