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Tropos Research Overview: RWTH Aachen M. Jarke and G. Lakemeyer RWTH Aachen History of Aachen’s Approach DAIDA : Metadata linking IS development phases, development of Telos, first ConceptBase prototype (1988)

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Tropos Research Overview:

RWTH Aachen

M. Jarke and G. Lakemeyer

RWTH Aachen


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History of Aachen’s Approach

DAIDA : Metadata linking IS development phases, development of Telos, first ConceptBase prototype (1988)

COMPULOG : logical foundations of meta modeling, meta formula handling by partial evaluation (Jeusfeld 1992)

NATURE/CREWS : application to perspective resolution in requirements engineering and business modeling (Nissen 1997, Peters 1997), extension to business cooperation (Kethers 2001) and warehoues/e-commerce (Quix 2002)

TROPOS : dynamic modeling of social networks in coooperation with sociologists and entrepreneurs


Multi perspective cooperative modeling metamodels as goals l.jpg

common

meta model

entity

relationship

notation

data

flow

notation

viewpoint 1

viewpoint 2

common reality

Multi-Perspective Cooperative Modeling : Metamodels as Goals

For small processes [Nissen et al.; IEEE SW 96]:

--> metaplan + repository formalization

For large processes [Rose, CACM 12/98]:

--> layout generation + synchronization

analysis

in


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Regional Networks in the US

Emilio J. Castilla, Hokyu Hwang, Ellen Granovetter, and Mark Granovetter (2000):

Network of Silicon Valley Entrepreneurs


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Network Theory Approaches

  • Cluster Theory (M. Porter)

    • Innovation and productivity by Coopetition

  • Social Capital (Bourdieu, Putnam)

    • Reputation mechanisms (individual / organisation)

    • central role of trust

  • our TCD approach (Trust-Confidence-Distrust)

    • networks not a hybrid

    • distrust is not negation of trust

    • successful combination high trust - high distrust !


Entrepreneurship network route 128 dependencies according to 40 interviews l.jpg
Entrepreneurship Network Route 128,dependencies according to 40 interviews

Strategic

investor

Local Cluster Information Technology

Investment

Banker

Angel

Group

Angel

Limited

Partners

Venture

Capitalist

Entrepreneur

lawyer

customer

Supply/

Service

Consultant/

Mediator

Team

E-Center

50k-

Competition

E-Lab

Licensing

Office

Faculty

Alumni


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Modeling Organisation Networks with Tropos: A Trust-Centered Approach

M. Jarke and G. Lakemeyer

Aachen University of Technology

other contributors:

L. Ellrich, C. Funken, M. Meister, Freiburg

G. Gans, S. Kethers, R.Klamma, T. Vits, Aachen

V. Wulf, Fraunhofer FIT


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Goal- and Scenario-Based

Continuous Requirements Management

scenario generation

for validation/

refinement

observation focus/

goal discovery

goal/requirement

refinement/negotiation

new

model

initial

model

change

specification

animate

reverse

analysis

future

scenario

change

envisionment

current

scenario

change

implementation

capture

legacy

integration

existing

system

new

system

... extended to Social Networks


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Social Networks

  • an autonomous form of coordination that combines advantages of two traditional mechanisms

    • markets: flexibility, adaptive to competition

    • hierarchies: long duration cooperation

  • trusting cooperation of autonomous, but interdependent agents (here: organizations)

    • small-business B2B commerce, virtual org‘s

    • entrepreneurship networks


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Overview

1. Role of Trust/Distrust in Agent Networks

2. A Multi-Perspective Modeling Approach

3. The Tropos(AC) Prototype

4. Conclusions


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expectation of

risky investment reciprocity

individual trust : likelihood of reciprocity violation

Coleman: p G > (1-p) L (similar: DAI community)

game theory: iterated prisoner‘s dilemma

eBusiness: reputation mechanisms

network confidence : strategic vulnerabilities, balanced inter-dependency networks

Trust


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An Example: Seminar Organization

Eric Yu‘s i*,here: the strategic rational model


Distrust l.jpg

Distrust is not just negation or absence of trust

Luhmann 1988: functional equivalence + distrust spiral

Kern 1997: inject controlled amount of distrust

Lewicki et al. 1998: high-trust / high-distrust networks can be highly successful

Implications for RE

disparity between motive and action (latency)

positive function in networks (watchful trust)

tendency for distrust aggregation must be contained, e.g. by network rules and traceability (institutionalized distrust)

A Basis for IT-supported continuous RE !

Distrust


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The TCD Model :

a delicate balance for network success


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Overview

1. Role of Trust/Distrust in Agent Networks

2. A Multi-Perspective Modeling Approach

3. The Tropos(AC) Prototype

4. Conclusions


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Enhance Viewpoint Resolution Methods:

But which Viewpoints are needed?

Expectations + Reality

... communicated in negotiations among agents

Reaching goals requires certain actions

Speech Acts

Plans

depend on (and influence) Trust, Confidence, Distrust



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Multi-Perspective Agent Model:

Structural Perspectives


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Multi-Perspective Agent Model:

Action Perspectives


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Speech Act Perspektive

Action Workflow [Medina-Mora et al. 1992, Schäl 96]



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Speech Act Modeling:

TCD influences delegation structure

No trust:

Pro‘s:

no risk

Con‘s:

narrow competence


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Speech Act Modeling:

TCD influences delegation structure

Trust:

Pro‘s:

broader competence

Con‘s:

delayed reaction


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Speech Act Modeling:

TCD influences delegation structure

Confidence:

Pro‘s:

improved competence and efficiency

Con‘s:

higher risk


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Speech Act Modeling:

TCD influences delegation structure

Confidence plus Distrust:

Pro‘s:

focused risk management

Con‘s:

monitoring effort


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Extending i* for a Trust-Based Approach

  • Task preconditions and postcondition

  • synchronization of interdependent agent-plans

  • Trust, confidence, and distrust as subj. probabilities

  • as part of preconditions they control task selection

  • A simple (linear) model of time

  • monitoring expectations (distrust, network rules)

 Facilitates the mapping into an executable plan language


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Organizer´s Plan with Confidence

ClientOrganizer Speaker



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Overview

1. Role of Trust/Distrust in Agent Networks

2. A Multi-Perspective Modeling Approach

3. The Tropos(AC) Prototype

4. Conclusions


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From Extended i* to Congolog programs

  • Congolog: A logic-based plan language

    • offers control constructs like sequences, if-then-else, while, recursion, and concurrency

    • allows reasoning about actions with a solution to the frame problem (Reiter 1991)

    • comes equipped with an interpreter forsimulation

Example:

proc sem_org

<c,l,t.request(c,l,t) 

/* client c requests seminar l to be held at time t */

if nettrust(c)  NWThreshold

then (commit(c,l,t); organize(c,l,t))

else /* call a proc. to find speaker first and then commit */

endproc


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OME

ext. i*

Golog prog. .pl file

static model Telos file

Eclipse Golog Int.

Java Interf.

TCP/IP

CBase

Simulator (Java)

History

The System Architecture


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A Restaurant Domain

everything_ok

rate_ good

good_rating

rate_ meal

eating_ finished

bad_rating

rate_ bad

something_ not_ok

serve_ meal

meal

meal

eat

go_to_ restaurant

ready

cook

start

work

meal_ chosen

accept_ order

order_ received

choose_ meal

trust_high_ enough

guest

chef

waiter

exogenous


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The Extended i* Editor OME

guest

waiter

chef

exogenous


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Congolog Code generated from ext. i*

/*Agent procedures */

proc(agent_guest,

conc( interrupt(eating_finished=true , decomp_rate_meal),

interrupt(ready=true , decomp_go_to_restaurant))).

proc(agent_chef,interrupt(order_received=true , cook)).

proc(agent_waiter, interrupt(meal_chosen=true , decomp_work)).

/*Decomposition of complex Tasks*/

proc(decomp_work ,[ conc(accept_order , serve_meal), work]).

proc(decomp_go_to_restaurant ,[ conc(choose_meal , eat),

go_to_restaurant]).

proc(decomp_ rate_meal ,[ conc([rate_bad , rate_meal] ,

[rate_good , rate_meal])]).





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Conclusions

  • worked with sociologists to look into the dynamics of how dependencies and strategic rationals change due to the evolution of trust and distrust in a social network

  • Introduced methodology based on i*, ConGolog, and speech acts to model and simulate trust-based inter-actions in agent networks. Havefirst prototype.

  • To evaluate our model, we are studying networks of start-up companies, in Germany and the US (MIT). Also look at b2b applications (M. Schoop, T. List).

  • Interested in understanding relationships to other formalizations (model-checking) and applications. Formal joint project?


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