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IPv6 DHCP. By : Santosh Yadav IIT Kanpur. IPv6 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Overview. Evolution Of DHCPv6 DHCPv6 Concepts Installation Configuration. Evolution Of DHCPv6 . To boot the machines in a LAN, needs lot of network parameters to be configured in each machine.

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Ipv6 dhcp

IPv6 DHCP

By : Santosh Yadav

IIT Kanpur


Ipv6 dynamic host configuration protocol overview
IPv6 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Overview

  • Evolution Of DHCPv6

  • DHCPv6 Concepts

  • Installation

  • Configuration


Evolution Of DHCPv6

  • To boot the machines in a LAN, needs lot of network parameters to be configured in each machine.

  • In order to avoid this manual process, all the network parameters are put in a server and when a machine in LAN is booting, it will contact the server for the configuration parameters. This is called BOOTP server. Later it is extended to DHCP with additional features.

  • Generally called DHCP


Evolution Of DHCPv6

IP configuration in IPV6 is carried out by IPV6 auto-configuration

IPv6 auto-configuration

  • Stateless

    • nodes configure addresses themselves with

      information from routers (if available);

    • no managed addresses

  • Stateful

    • nodes use DHCPv6 to obtain addresses.

    • Duplicate address detection (DAD) used to avoid

      duplicated addresses


  • Dhcpv6 concepts
    Dhcpv6 Concepts

    • What is DHCPv6 ?

    • The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6

      (DHCP) enables DHCP servers to pass configuration

      parameters such as IPv6 network addresses to IPv6

      nodes.

    • DHCPv6 protocol Released in RFC 3315

    • This protocol is a stateful counterpart to "IPv6 Stateless

      Address Autoconfiguration" (RFC 2462).

    • Used separately or concurrently with the latter to obtain

      configuration parameters.


    Dhcpv6 Concepts…

    • DHCPv6 Versus DHCPv4

    • The following lists the main differences between DHCPv4 and DHCPv6:

    • Unlike DHCPv4, IPv6 address allocation in DHCPv6 is

      handled using a message option.

    • The message types, such as DHCPDISCOVER and

      DHCPOFFER supported by DHCPv4 are removed in

      DHCPv6. Instead, DHCPv6 servers are located by a client

      SOLICIT message followed by a server ADVERTISE message

    • Unlike DHCPv4 clients, DHCPv6 clients can request multiple

      IPv6 addresses.


    Dhcpv6 concepts1
    Dhcpv6 Concepts…

    Why we need dhcpv6 ?

    • A method of providing stateful IPv6 address configuration/assignment

    • Also provides “other” network information

    • DNS servers

    • NIS information

    • DHCP allows centralized control and

    • auditing of IP address assignments

    • Central point of control for resources

    • Dynamic DNS updates

    • More security versus stateless


    Dhcpv6 concepts2
    Dhcpv6 Concepts…

    DHCPv6 Basic Message Format

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

    • SOLICIT

    • ADVERTISE

    • REQUEST

    • CONFIRM

    • RENEW

    • REBIND

    • REPLY

    • RELEASE

    • DECLINE

    • RECONFIGURE

    • INFORMATION-REQUEST

    • RELAY-FORW

    • RELAY-REPL



    Dhcpv6 Concepts…

    DHCP Messages

    • Messages exchanged using UDP

      • Client port – udp/546

      • Server Port – udp/547

    • Client uses Link-Local address or addresses determined using other methods to transmit and receive DHCP messages.

    • Server receives messages from clients using a reserved, Link-Scoped multicast address.


    Dhcpv6 Concepts…

    DHCP Multicast Addresses

    • All_DHCP_Relay_Agents_and_Servers

      • Link-scoped multicast address used by a client to communicate with on-link relay agents and servers

      • FF02::1:2

    • All_DHCP_Servers

      • Site-scoped multicast address used by a relay agent to communicate with servers

      • FF05::1:3


    Dhcpv6 concepts3
    Dhcpv6 Concepts…

    DHCPv6 option format and base option

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

    • Client Identifier

    • Server Identifier

    • Identity Association for Non-temporary

    Addresses

    • Identity Association for Temporary

    Addresses

    • IA Address

    • Option Request

    • Preference

    • Elapsed Time

    • Relay Message

    • Authentication

    • Server Unicast

    • Status Code

    • Rapid Commit

    • User Class

    • Vendor Class

    • Vendor-specific Information

    • Interface-Id

    • Reconfigure Message

    • Reconfigure Accept


    Dhcpv6 Concepts…

    DHCP Unique Identifer (DUID)

    • Each DHCP client and server has a DUID. DHCP servers use DUIDs to identify clients for the selection of configuration parameters and in client Identity Associations.

      • Unique across all clients and servers

      • Should not change over time (if possible)

      • Must be < 128 octets long


    Dhcpv6 Concepts…

    Identity Association

    • An identity association (IA) is a construct through which a server and client can identify, group, and manage a set of related IP addresses.

      • Client must associate at least one distinct IA with each

        network interface requesting assignment of IP

        addresses from DHCP server (IAID)

      • Must be associated with exactly one interface

      • Must be consistent across restarts by the client


    DHCPv6 working

    SOLICIT

    DHCP client

    DHCP server B

    DHCP server A

    T I M E

    ADVERTISE

    ADVERTISE

    REQUEST

    Client select one advertise server B

    REPLY

    Client Now use address and parameter for lifetime

    Client renew life time

    RENEW

    REPLY

    Client releases address when shutting down

    RELEASE


    Dhcpv6 concepts4
    Dhcpv6 Concepts…

    • Dhcpv6 operation :

    • Client sends messages to link-local multicast address

    • Server unicasts response to client

    • Information-Request / Reply - provide client configuration

    • information but no addresses

    • Confirm / Reply - assist in determining whether client moved

    • Reconfigure - allow servers to initiate a client reconfiguration

    • Basic client/server authentication capabilities in base

      standard.

    • DHCP Unique Identifier (DUID) used to identify clients &

      servers

    • Identity Association ID (IAID) used to identify a collection of

    • addresses

    • Relay Agents used when server not on-link

    • Relay Agents may be chained


    Ongoing project
    Ongoing Project

    • Previously DHCPv6 v1.001and now DHCPv6 2.001 available for the HP-UX 11i v1 and HP-UX 11i v2 operating systems http:/docs.hp.com

    • Dibbler is a portable DHCPv6 implementation on Linux 2.4/2.6 and Windows XP and Windows 2003.

      This project was started as master thesis by Tomasz Mrugalski and Marek Senderski of Computer Science faculty on Gdansk University of Technology.

      http://klub.com.pl/dhcpv6/

    • Project UNIX name: dhcpv6

      Operating System: All POSIX (Linux/BSD/UNIX-like OSes), Linux

      http://dhcpv6.sourceforge.net/


    Installation
    Installation

    Dhcpv6 server :

    • Update with dhcpv6-0.10-11_FC3.i386.rpm using

      # rpm -U dhcpv6-0.10-11_FC3.i386.rpm

    • Create a database directory

      #mkdir /var/db/dhcpv6

    • Copy sample server configuration file

      # cp dhcp6s.conf /etc/dhcp6s.conf

    • Start the server daemon using

      # dhcp6s –dDf eth0


    Installation1
    Installation…

    Dhcpv6 client :

    • Update with dhcpv6_client-0.10-11_FC3.i386.rpm using

      # rpm -U dhcpv6_client-0.10-11_FC3.i386.rpm

    • Copy sample client configuration file

      # cp dhcp6c.conf /etc/dhcp6c.conf

    • Start the client daemon using

      # dhcp6c –dDf eth0


    Configuration

    In Fedora core 3 following files are configured :

    Server configuration :

    /etc/sysconfig/dhcp6s

    /etc/dhcp6s.conf

    File : /etc/sysconfig/dhcp6s

    Specify the interface for dhcp6s

    DHCP6SIF=eth0


    Configuration…

    Server configuration...

    File : /etc/dhcp6s.conf

    interface eth0 {

    server-preference 255;

    renew-time 60;

    rebind-time 90;

    prefer-life-time 130;

    valid-life-time 200;

    allow rapid-commit;

    link BBB {

    pool{

    range 2001:0E30:1402:2::4 to 2001:0E30:1402:2::ffff/64;

    prefix 2001:0E30:1402::/48;

    };

    };

    };


    Configuration…

    In Fedora core 3 following files are configured :

    Client configuration :

    /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0

    /etc/dhcp6c.conf

    File : /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0

    IPV6INIT=yes

    DHCP6C=yes


    Configuration…

    client configuration...

    File : /etc/dhcp6c.conf

    interface eth0 {

    #information-only;

    send rapid-commit;

    #request prefix-delegation;

    #request temp-address;

    address {

    2001:0E30:1402:1:9656:3:4:56/64;

    };

    };


    Testing

    Start the server daemon in debug mode in foreground

    #dhcp6s –dDf eth0

    Restart the network service of client

    #service network restart

    See the address assignment

    #ifconfig



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