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Inclusion of Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders. in a High School science classroom . Erin Acheson EDSP 6644 Spring 2009.
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in a High School science classroom
“…teachers feel under increasing pressure to achieve academic results at all costs in a curriculum which makes few concessions to … ‘the unteachables’.”( Times Educational Supplement editorial, 2005, as quoted in Cooper, 2008).
“‘It is no surprise that teachers…find coping with special needs in mainstream classrooms difficult without additional training and classroom support.…”
(Times Educational Supplement editorial, 2005, as quoted in Cooper, 2008).
“The dark heart of inclusion: every child matters , but only if they behave themselves”
(Louisa Leaman as quoted in Soan, 2006).
“Growing numbers of [students with] special needs are behaviour-related.” (Times Educational Supplement editorial, 2005, as quoted in Cooper, 2008).
Students can learn from appropriate interactions with same-age peers (although more intensive training is always needed) (Hallahan, 2009).
Academic goals of students with EBD should parallel those of their peers anyway (Hallahan, 2009).
Inclusion necessitates that teachers have a highly structured classroom and lesson plans that are relevant to students with EBD, which benefits all students (Hallahan, 2009).
Teachers need to “be willing to make wise choices for students who choose to behave unwisely” and be consistent (Hallahan, 2009).
Negative behaviors of students with EBD distract from the learning environment of all students (Hallahan, 2009).
Students with EBD take a greater proportion of a teacher’s time leaving less time for all other students (Hallahan, 2009).
Full inclusion negates the importance of affiliation with students who have disabilities. (Hallahan, 2009).
What does it say about inclusion of students with EBD?
Students present more learning problems than their peers without disabilities
50% of students with EBD drop out of school
Students often lack basic academic skills along with negative behaviors
(U.S. Department of Education as quoted in Pierce, 2004; Reschly, 2006; Hallahan, 2009).
Few empirical investigations of classrooms and schools successfully educating and including students with EBD have been conducted (Danforth, 2006).
Little research has been done on high school students and students with internalizing behavior problems (Hoagwood, 2007).
Majority of research on students with EBD focuses on behavioral outcomes instead of academic outcomes (Pierce, 2004).
Despite opposition from the research community, there is progression toward inclusion of students with EBD. American public schools have gradually become more inclusive in general. (U.S. Department of Education, 2004 as quoted in Danforth, 2006).
The social aspect of school is especially important for students with disabilities (Reschly, 2006).
Reinforce appropriate behaviors and (if necessary) punish inappropriate behavior
Most functional assessment research has focused on recognizing and creating interventions that maintain consequences of problem behavior.
Use functional behavioral assessments to identify and encourage appropriate behaviors