Immunology Exam 1 Part 2. Created by: Laura Wilson. Where are lymphoid stem cells produced in older fetuses and neonates?. Bone marrow . In mammals, where do T cells mature?. Thymus. In mammals, where do B lymphocytes mature?. Bone marrow.
Mature lymphocytes acquire __ __ __ and other ___ ____ and learn to discriminate btwn self antigens, which are tolerated, and foreign antigens, which, generally are not
The process of + and – selection effectively eliminates most T cells in the thymus, to the extent that >__% of the developing T cells die in the thymus
The lymphoid tissue which contains macrophages, some activated B cells and plasma cells. It is a storage site for erythrocytes, platelets, and granulocytes.
Blood borne antigens and lymphocytes enter the spleen through the ___ ____, which divide into capillary branches that empty into the ___ ____; from here the blood enters the ____ _____ of the red pulp.
This tissue comprises all lymphoid cells present as either solitary or aggregated nodules in epithelia, lamina propria and submucosa of the GIT, resp. tract and genitourinary tract.
Extravasation of lymphocytes from the blood into a peripheral ln. occurs selectively at modified post-capillary venules w/n the paracortex of the node, called:
The attachment of lymphocytes to the endothelium of peripheral lymphoid tissues is mediated by ____ _____ on the lymphocytes and ______ on endothelial cells.
Effector and memory T cells express increased levels of certain cell adhesion molecules, allowing them to enter teriary _____ ______ and ___ _____ in addition to 2o lymphoid organs.
A disulfide-linked heterodimer glycoprotein that enables T cells to recognize processed antigens presented in association with MHC molecules.
Type of region where CDRs reside w/n the variable region; they consist of unique amino acid sequences that form the antigen-binding site of the TCR.
The variable B chain contains a fourth hypervariable region, which doesn’t appear to participate in peptide recognition but is the binding site for microbial products called:
This TCR coreceptor is found on cytotoxic T cells. It’s function is the recognition of the alpha3 domain of class I MHC molecules, enabling cytotoxic T cells to bind to target cells.
This molecule is found on resting T cells. Activated T cells express more than this molecule. It binds to a protein called CD58 present on APCs and target cells. It is also a T cell signal transducer.
This is a membrane receptor for co-stimulatory signals [signal 2] that activates naïve T cells. It’s ligand is B7-1 and B7-2 that are expressed on the professional APCs.
This is a third form of IL-1 that binds to IL-1 receptors but is biologically inactive so that it functions as a competitive inhibitor of IL-1:
TNF stimulated endothelial cell expression of tissue factor, a potent activator of coagulation. Occurs in tumor vessels accounting for it’s tumor killing activity:
A family of glycoproteins synthesized by somatic cells in response to virus stimulation, immune stimulation, mitogens, LPS, and synthetic dsRNA:
Type of IFNs which inhibit virus replication and increase expression of MHC class I molecules. They also inhibit the proliferation of many cell types, including tumor cells:
Large family of small proteins that are involved in migration and activation of cells, especially phagocytic cells and lymphocytes. They play a role in inflammatory rxns:
Chemokines bind to ______ _____ _______ on endothelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins; in turn, they are recognized by chemokine receptors on leukocytes.
Following a 1o antigen injection, there is an Ab response that consists most of __; the response following a 2o response challenge is mostly __.
Neutrophil proteins that kill microbes by interacting with the microbial cell membrane to form channels through which essential metabolites escape: _______.
Refers to the increase in the binding strength of antibodies produced during the course of a humeral immune response as a result of somatic mutations.
Anaphylatoxins that serve to recruit fluid and inflammatory cells to sites of antigen invasion by stimulating mast cell degranulation includes ___ and ___.