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Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions. Individualism-collectivism Masculinity-femininity Power distance Uncertainty avoidance. Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions (cont’d). Work-related value dimensions Most influential effort to group by cultural values

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Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions

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Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions

  • Individualism-collectivism

  • Masculinity-femininity

  • Power distance

  • Uncertainty avoidance


Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions (cont’d)

  • Work-related value dimensions

  • Most influential effort to group by cultural values

  • Surveyed over 116,000 employees in more than 70 countries

  • Created maps of pairs of dimensions


Individualism-Collectivism

  • Self-perception as individual or part of a group

  • Most widely studied

  • Most complex

  • Dimensions different across cultures

    • i.e., Asian vs Latin American collectivism


Individualism

High value on autonomy

Individual achievement

Privacy

Collectivism

High value on group

Family, clan, organization

Loyalty

Devotion

Conformity

Individualism-Collectivism (cont’d)


Success

Assertive acquisition of money/power

achievement

Equality of genders

Caring for disadvantaged

harmony

Masculinity-FemininityDescribes Importance of Achievement versus Relationships


High-Power Distance

Accept position

Follow authority

Concentrated & centralized authority

Hierarchical

Low-Power Distance

Avoid concentration of authority

Decentralized

Fewer layers of management

Power DistanceAcceptance of differences in power


Low Uncertainty

Avoidance

Embrace unpredictable

Less adherence to rules, procedures, or hierarchies

Risk taking desirable

High Uncertainty

Avoidance

Threatened by ambiguity

Need stable & predictable workplace

Reliance on rules

Uncertainty AvoidanceReaction to ambiguous events


Cultural Maps

  • Individualism-Collectivism & Power Distance

  • Uncertainty Avoidance & Masculinity-Femininity

  • Uncertainty Avoidance & Power Distance


Individualism-Collectivism & Power Distance

  • Large power distance and collectivism

    • Asia and Latin America

  • Small power distance and individualism

    • Northern Europe and Anglo countries


Culture Map for Power Distance and Individualism


Uncertainty Avoidance & Masculinity-Femininity

  • Achievement oriented-weak uncertainty avoidance & masculine values

  • Security Motivation-high uncertainty avoidance & masculinity

  • Social Motivation-feminine values & high uncertainty avoidance


Culture Map for Uncertainty Avoidance and Masculinity-Femininity


Uncertainty Avoidance & Power Distance

  • Family-large power distance & weak uncertainty avoidance

  • Pyramid of People-large power distance & strong uncertainty avoidance

  • Well-Oiled Machine-small power distance & strong uncertainty avoidance

  • Village Market-small power distance & low uncertainty avoidance


Culture Map for Power Distance and Uncertainty Orientation


Limitation of Hofstede’s Dimensions

  • Missing countries

    • Estimates values

  • Ignores differences within clusters


Trompenaars’s Alternative Dimensions

  • Focus on values and relationships

  • Survey of

    • 15,000 managers

    • Over 10-year period

    • From 28 countries

  • Bipolar cultural dimensions


Trompenaars’s Alternative Dimensions (cont’d)

  • Outer-directed—Inner-directed

  • Universalism—Particularism

  • Neutral—Emotional

  • Specific—Diffuse

  • Achievement—Ascription

  • Individualism—Communitarianism


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