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Econ omic and Social Progress in Latin America, IPES 2008 Inter-American Development Bank. Gustavo Márquez, RES. General Coordinator Alberto Chong, RES; Suzanne Duryea, RES; Jacqueline Mazza, SCL; Hugo Ñopo, RES. Gustavo Márquez, RES. Coordinador General

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Economic and Social Progress in Latin America, IPES 2008

Inter-American Development Bank

Gustavo Márquez, RES. General Coordinator

Alberto Chong, RES; Suzanne Duryea, RES;

Jacqueline Mazza, SCL; Hugo Ñopo, RES

Gustavo Márquez, RES. Coordinador General

Alberto Chong, RES; Suzanne Duryea, RES;

Jacqueline Mazza, SCL; Hugo Ñopo, RES


Three main messages
Three main messages

  • Social exclusion is a phenomenon associated with, but very different from poverty.

  • Social exclusion have significant economic costs than can be measured.

  • Advancing social inclusion calls for public policies that go beyond poverty alleviation programs.



Social exclusion
Social Exclusion different from poverty. …

  • Nature

    • Is a social, political and economic dynamic that blocks group and individual access to resources and opportunities, thus limiting their ability to obtain outcomes valuable in a market economy.

  • Mechanisms

    • Operates through formal and informal institutions that reduce the liberty and functioning of the excluded, reducing their well-being.

  • Results

    • Affects the attainment of income, consumption, and political and social participation by the excluded. Increase transaction costs and hinders governance agreements for society as a whole.


Discrimination stigmatization and group identity

Discrimination, Stigmatization and Group Identity different from poverty.

The Traditional Forms of Exclusion


Who is discriminated against
Who is Discriminated Against? different from poverty.


Why are they discriminated against
Why Are They Discriminated Against? different from poverty.


Beyond perceptions
Beyond Perceptions different from poverty.

  • Perceptions are relevant only to the extent that they affect the decisions, actions and outcomes of individuals.

  • There is a notorious difference in wage levels across different groups (gender, ethnic, racial).

  • However, the literature on wage differentials reveal that almost half of the wage difference is explained by different human capital endowments.

     The evidence of discrimination, as shown by wage differentials unexplained by individual characteristics, is notably less than that arising from the simple comparison of wage levels.


Results and processes
Results and Processes different from poverty.

  • The region is extremely unequal, but discrimination is not the only cause of inequality. The confusion between relative deprivation and discrimination is one of the fundamental deficits in the literature.

  • The design of policies of social inclusion depends on our capacity to understand the processes through which social exclusion is produced and reproduced, and to look beyond solely traditionally excluded groups.


Democratization, Macro Stabilization, Globalization and Changes in the Patterns of Inclusion and Exclusion

The Modern Forms of Exclusion


Inclusion in some grounds for some groups
Inclusion in Some Grounds Changes in the Patterns of Inclusion and Exclusion for Some Groups


Changes in the trend in informal employment
Changes in the Trend in Informal Employment Changes in the Patterns of Inclusion and Exclusion


Inclusion education and health
Inclusion: Education and Health Changes in the Patterns of Inclusion and Exclusion


Exclusion pensions
Exclusion: Pensions Changes in the Patterns of Inclusion and Exclusion


Low wages and exclusion
Low-Wages and Exclusion Changes in the Patterns of Inclusion and Exclusion







Increasing female participation
Increasing Female Participation the Incidence of Low-Wage jobs


Mobility and exclusion
Mobility and Exclusion the Incidence of Low-Wage jobs

  • The little we know about social mobility in the region suggests that it is unlikely that the majority of individuals will see significant improvements in their social or economic position within their lifetimes or that of their children.

  • This aggravates the consequences of exclusions and creates intergenerational transmissions of socio-economic disadvantages.

  • Improving mobility requires equal opportunities and actions directed at changing the processes that generate social immobility.



Cooperation social distance and exclusion
Cooperation, Social Distance and Exclusion measured.

  • Within the problem of exclusion is the problem of lack of confidence, limiting collective action and cooperation.

  • With a number of economic experiments, applied to representative samples of 6 capital cities in the region, we explored questions such as: To what extent do Latin Americans collaborate with each other? What role does social distance play in the determination of these egoistic or cooperative behaviors ?

    What do We Find?...




What do we find
What do We Find? measured.

  • The limitations of trust and cooperation imply friction in markets and increased transaction costs. As a result, market efficiency and value generation are reduced.

  • Our experiments found that increases in trust and cooperation among Latin Americans could imply gains in the generation of social product that range from 20% to 70%.



Public policy and social inclusion
Public Policy and Social Inclusion beyond poverty alleviation programs.

  • Inclusion is not a policy objective, but a societal process that public policy can stimulate.

  • Exclusion is a multi-dimensional, changing and dynamic phenomenon. Social inclusion shares these characteristics.

  • The policies of inclusion are a dynamic process to promote social, economic and cultural equality, fighting discrimination, and increasing diversity.


Inclusion and public policy
Inclusion and Public Policy beyond poverty alleviation programs.

  • Inclusion changes outcomes and the processes through which people obtain them. Changes in the environment of and access to institutions are crucial.

  • Inclusion is a range of advances in different areas in varying moments.

  • The process of inclusion is dynamic and multi-dimensional: changes in education are necessary, but not sufficient, nor substitutes for changes in other dimensions (ie: labor market).


In summary
In Summary beyond poverty alleviation programs.

  • Social exclusion is a phenomenon associated with, but different than poverty. Inclusion requires different public policies than those traditionally used to combat poverty.

  • Social exclusion has significant economic costs. Advances in social inclusion reduce transaction costs and facilitate the achievement of governance agreements.

  • Progress in the process of inclusion requires fundamental changes in the ways institutions are managed and in the design, analysis and implementation of public policies.


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