Econ
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 32

Gustavo Márquez, RES. Coordinador General Alberto Chong, RES; Suzanne Duryea, RES; Jacqueline Mazza, SCL; Hugo Ñopo, RES PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 131 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Econ omic and Social Progress in Latin America, IPES 2008 Inter-American Development Bank. Gustavo Márquez, RES. General Coordinator Alberto Chong, RES; Suzanne Duryea, RES; Jacqueline Mazza, SCL; Hugo Ñopo, RES. Gustavo Márquez, RES. Coordinador General

Download Presentation

Gustavo Márquez, RES. Coordinador General Alberto Chong, RES; Suzanne Duryea, RES; Jacqueline Mazza, SCL; Hugo Ñopo, RES

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Gustavo m rquez res coordinador general alberto chong res suzanne duryea res jacqueline mazza scl hugo opo re

Economic and Social Progress in Latin America, IPES 2008

Inter-American Development Bank

Gustavo Márquez, RES. General Coordinator

Alberto Chong, RES; Suzanne Duryea, RES;

Jacqueline Mazza, SCL; Hugo Ñopo, RES

Gustavo Márquez, RES. Coordinador General

Alberto Chong, RES; Suzanne Duryea, RES;

Jacqueline Mazza, SCL; Hugo Ñopo, RES


Three main messages

Three main messages

  • Social exclusion is a phenomenon associated with, but very different from poverty.

  • Social exclusion have significant economic costs than can be measured.

  • Advancing social inclusion calls for public policies that go beyond poverty alleviation programs.


Social exclusion is a phenomenon associated with but very different from poverty

Social exclusion is a phenomenon associated with, but very different from poverty.


Social exclusion

Social Exclusion…

  • Nature

    • Is a social, political and economic dynamic that blocks group and individual access to resources and opportunities, thus limiting their ability to obtain outcomes valuable in a market economy.

  • Mechanisms

    • Operates through formal and informal institutions that reduce the liberty and functioning of the excluded, reducing their well-being.

  • Results

    • Affects the attainment of income, consumption, and political and social participation by the excluded. Increase transaction costs and hinders governance agreements for society as a whole.


Discrimination stigmatization and group identity

Discrimination, Stigmatization and Group Identity

The Traditional Forms of Exclusion


Who is discriminated against

Who is Discriminated Against?


Why are they discriminated against

Why Are They Discriminated Against?


Beyond perceptions

Beyond Perceptions

  • Perceptions are relevant only to the extent that they affect the decisions, actions and outcomes of individuals.

  • There is a notorious difference in wage levels across different groups (gender, ethnic, racial).

  • However, the literature on wage differentials reveal that almost half of the wage difference is explained by different human capital endowments.

     The evidence of discrimination, as shown by wage differentials unexplained by individual characteristics, is notably less than that arising from the simple comparison of wage levels.


Results and processes

Results and Processes

  • The region is extremely unequal, but discrimination is not the only cause of inequality. The confusion between relative deprivation and discrimination is one of the fundamental deficits in the literature.

  • The design of policies of social inclusion depends on our capacity to understand the processes through which social exclusion is produced and reproduced, and to look beyond solely traditionally excluded groups.


Gustavo m rquez res coordinador general alberto chong res suzanne duryea res jacqueline mazza scl hugo opo re

Democratization, Macro Stabilization, Globalization and Changes in the Patterns of Inclusion and Exclusion

The Modern Forms of Exclusion


Inclusion in some grounds for some groups

Inclusion in Some Grounds for Some Groups


Changes in the trend in informal employment

Changes in the Trend in Informal Employment


Inclusion education and health

Inclusion: Education and Health


Exclusion pensions

Exclusion: Pensions


Low wages and exclusion

Low-Wages and Exclusion


The number of low wage jobs has grown in most countries in the region

The Number of Low-Wage Jobs has Grown in Most Countries in the Region


Education and low wage jobs

Education and Low-Wage Jobs


Female labor force participation and low wage jobs

Female Labor Force Participation and Low-Wage Jobs


Economic fluctuations cannot fully explain the increases in the incidence of low wage jobs

Economic Fluctuations Cannot Fully Explain the Increases in the Incidence of Low-Wage jobs


The incidence of low wage jobs has increased in all sectors

The Incidence of Low-Wage Jobs has Increased in All Sectors


Increasing female participation

Increasing Female Participation


Mobility and exclusion

Mobility and Exclusion

  • The little we know about social mobility in the region suggests that it is unlikely that the majority of individuals will see significant improvements in their social or economic position within their lifetimes or that of their children.

  • This aggravates the consequences of exclusions and creates intergenerational transmissions of socio-economic disadvantages.

  • Improving mobility requires equal opportunities and actions directed at changing the processes that generate social immobility.


Social exclusion have significant economic costs than can be measured

Social exclusion have significant economic costs than can be measured.


Cooperation social distance and exclusion

Cooperation, Social Distance and Exclusion

  • Within the problem of exclusion is the problem of lack of confidence, limiting collective action and cooperation.

  • With a number of economic experiments, applied to representative samples of 6 capital cities in the region, we explored questions such as: To what extent do Latin Americans collaborate with each other? What role does social distance play in the determination of these egoistic or cooperative behaviors ?

    What do We Find?...


Cooperation and social distance

Cooperation and Social Distance


Heterogeneity and confidence

Heterogeneity and Confidence


What do we find

What do We Find?

  • The limitations of trust and cooperation imply friction in markets and increased transaction costs. As a result, market efficiency and value generation are reduced.

  • Our experiments found that increases in trust and cooperation among Latin Americans could imply gains in the generation of social product that range from 20% to 70%.


Advancing social inclusion calls for public policies that go beyond poverty alleviation programs

Advancing social inclusion calls for public policies that go beyond poverty alleviation programs.


Public policy and social inclusion

Public Policy and Social Inclusion

  • Inclusion is not a policy objective, but a societal process that public policy can stimulate.

  • Exclusion is a multi-dimensional, changing and dynamic phenomenon. Social inclusion shares these characteristics.

  • The policies of inclusion are a dynamic process to promote social, economic and cultural equality, fighting discrimination, and increasing diversity.


Inclusion and public policy

Inclusion and Public Policy

  • Inclusion changes outcomes and the processes through which people obtain them. Changes in the environment of and access to institutions are crucial.

  • Inclusion is a range of advances in different areas in varying moments.

  • The process of inclusion is dynamic and multi-dimensional: changes in education are necessary, but not sufficient, nor substitutes for changes in other dimensions (ie: labor market).


In summary

In Summary

  • Social exclusion is a phenomenon associated with, but different than poverty. Inclusion requires different public policies than those traditionally used to combat poverty.

  • Social exclusion has significant economic costs. Advances in social inclusion reduce transaction costs and facilitate the achievement of governance agreements.

  • Progress in the process of inclusion requires fundamental changes in the ways institutions are managed and in the design, analysis and implementation of public policies.


  • Login