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Schooling Schooling Behaviour marie Thérèse Rush ZOO*4330 Environmental Biology of Fishes - Laboratory Session Zoology Department University of Guelph February 26, 2001 Background Background: Refer to Laboratory Session 17 in:

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schooling behaviour

Schooling Behaviour

marie Thérèse Rush

ZOO*4330 Environmental Biology of Fishes - Laboratory Session

Zoology Department

University of Guelph

February 26, 2001

background

Background

Background:

Refer to Laboratory Session 17 in:

Balon, E.K., D.L.G. Noakes, & m.T. Rush. 1999. Principles of

Ichthyology. 6th edition. Department of Zoology and

Axelrod Institute of Ichthyology, College of Biological

Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

schooling definition

Definition

Schooling definition:
  • A school is a group of fish which stay together because of social responses to each other rather than through similar responses to a common external feature (Keenleyside 1975).
schooling investigation

Objectives

Schooling investigation

Observing the behaviour of fish species under specific conditions in order to answer the following questions:

  • Do schooling fishes prefer to associate with conspecifics or heterospecifics?
  • Do schooling fishes associate with a larger or smaller group of conspecifics?
schooling investigation6

Objectives

Schooling investigation
  • Testing species affinity
  • Testing effect of group size

Our objectives: To investigate reasons for the uniformity in species, size and behaviour of fish in a school.

technique for the study of schooling

Schooling Technique

Technique for the study of schooling
  • Fig. 1: Experimental procedure to measure schooling response of a single test fish (in section C) to groups of stimulus fishes (one group in each of sections A and B).
testing species affinity

Testing Species Affinity

Testing Species Affinity
  • Place equal numbers of each of two species in separate jars, and cover with screens provided.
  • Place a single fish of one of the two species (a test fish) in a small plastic cup and release in the centre of the aquarium.
testing species affinity9

Testing Species Affinity

Testing Species Affinity
  • Observe the amount of time spent in each section of the aquarium over a set period of time (e.g. 10 mins.)
    • 1. Time spent by test fish in each section;
    • 2. Behaviour of test fish;
    • 3. Behaviour of group fish.
testing species affinity10

Testing Species Affinity

Testing Species Affinity
  • Repeat the procedure using a new test fish (of the same species). Note: Exchange the position of the two holding containers(in order to correct for any biases that might be introduced such as affinity of the test fish to one side of the tank because of lighting conditions).
  • Repeat this test until you feel confident with your data
testing effect of group size

Testing Group Size

Testing Effect of Group Size
  • Place test fish in holding cup; release in centre of tank.
  • Observe the amount of time spent in each section of the aquarium over a set period of time (e.g. 10 mins.)
    • 1. Time spent by test fish in each section;
    • 2. Behaviour of test fish;
    • 3. Behaviour of group fish.
testing effect of group size12

Testing Group Size

Testing Effect of Group Size
  • Repeat the procedure using a new test fish (of the same species). Note: Exchange the position of the two holding containers(This is to control for possible position preference).
  • Repeat this test until you feel confident with your data
analyze data

Analyze Data

Analyze Data:
  • The chi-square test (Siegel 1956, Sokal & Rohlf 1969, Zar 1999) can be used to compare the observed distribution of test fish in the aquarium to an expected (=theoretical) distribution.
schooling14

End

Schooling
  • ©This presentation contains copyrighted material from the senior authors of:
    • Balon, E.K., D.L.G. Noakes & m.T. Rush. 1999. Principles of Ichthyology. 6th edition. Department of Zoology and Axelrod Institute of Ichthyology, College of Biological Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
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