The great depression
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The Great Depression - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Great Depression The Crash > Economy Compared to Television, 1929 The Crash > “It’s so nice to have Daddy home all the time now,” Life , 1930 Unemployment > Deportation of Mexicans, 1931 Unemployment > Jobs Listed by Race, 1939 Poverty > Hooverville, 1933 Hoover > “We can do it!” 1931

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The New Deal > Historiographic Debates time now,”

  • 1952, Herbert Hoover

    • New Deal failed because it “attempted to collectivize the American system of life.”

  • 1940s-1960s, “liberal consensus” historians

    • New Deal was a “pragmatic” revolution that expanded the role of the federal government in American life.

  • mid-1960s, “New Left” historians

    • New Deal was fundamentally conservative, it could but failed to redistribute power in American society; it protected American capitalism.

  • 1970s-2000s, contemporary historians

    • New Deal could not have done more than it did, because of conservative Congress, the lack of adequate government bureaucracy, and localist and antistatist political culture.

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The New Deal > Stages time now,”

  • 1932 - FDR elected

    • First New Deal (“the hundred days”)

  • 1934 - Strike wave

  • 1934 - Leftist Democrats win the majority in congressional elections

    • Second New Deal (“the second hundred days”)

  • 1935 - Supreme Court unanimously declares NRA unconstitutional

  • 1936 - FDR reelected in a landslide

  • 1937 - Court-packing

    • FDR proposes but fails to implement unpopular Supreme Court reform

  • 1938 - Republicans and conservative Democrats regain seats in the House

    • As a reform movement, New Deal is over

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New Deal > One Hundred Days Cartoon, time now,” Lynn Item, 1933

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New Deal > One Hundred Days Cartoon, time now,” Houston Post, 1933

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New Deal > Song from time now,” Thanks a Million, 1935

They started up the NRA to keep the big bad wolf away

Then FDR began to be a headache to the GOP

Now that codes are everywhere we’ve got initials in our hair

The farmer’s IOU is O.K. since Congress formed the AAA

The CCC chops down a tree and sells it pronto FOB …

The RFC and NHA led millions to the AAA

The AAA has crops it cuts and all of us are going nuts!


NRA - National Recovery Administration

AAA - Agricultural Adjustment Administration

CCC - Civilian Conservation Corps

RFC - Reconstruction Finance Corporation

NHA - National Housing Authority

FDR - Franklin Delano Roosevelt

GOP - Grand Old Party

FOB - Freight on Board

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New Deal > Farm Holiday, 1930 and Archibald Willard, time now,” The Spirit of ‘76, 1876

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1936 Elections > Alabama, 1936Literary Digest and Gallup polls

Literary Digest Final Poll

Landon 57%

Roosevelt 43

States for Landon 32

States for FDR 16

A.I.P.O. (Gallup) Final Poll

Roosevelt 55.7%

Landon 44.3

States for FDR 40

States for Landon 6

On the line 2

Election Results

Roosevelt 61%

Landon 49%

States for FDR 46

States for Landon 2

January 1936 Gallup Poll

By Income

Roosevelt Landon

Upper third 41% 59%

Lower third 70 30

Reliefers 82 18

October 1936 Gallup Poll


Roosevelt 52.6%

Landon 42.1%


Roosevelt 51.4%

Landon 44.8%

Young People (21–24 Years)

Roosevelt 57.4%

Landon 38.4%


Roosevelt 78.8%

Landon 14.0%

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Labor > Charlie Chaplin, addressing Ford workersModern Times, 1936

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Labor > A CIO poster quoting FDR addressing Ford workers

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Labor > The rise in union membership addressing Ford workers

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Labor > Strike patterns addressing Ford workers

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Labor > Sit-down strike in Flint, MI addressing Ford workers

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Labor > UAW organizers Walter Reuther and Richard Frankensteen pose for press photographers, River Rouge Plant, May 26, 1937

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Labor > They were approached by Ford Service Department men Frankensteen pose for press photographers, River Rouge Plant, May 26, 1937

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Labor > Ford men attacked Frankensteen pose for press photographers, River Rouge Plant, May 26, 1937

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Labor > Sit-down strike cartoon, incidentNew York World-Telegram, March 1937

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Labor > CIO photomagazine, incidentPhoto-History, July 1937

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Court Packing > incidentSchecter Poultry Corp. v. United States, 1935

  • A small company - small firms objected the most to limits on hours and wages

  • Charles Evans Hughes for the majority: “Extraordinary conditions do not create or enlarge constitutional power.”

    • Congress cannot relegate power to the executive branch, even in an emergency

    • NRA infringes on “freedom of contract,” through industrial price and wage codes

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Court Packing > “Fall In!,” incidentRichmond Times Dispatch, 1937

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Court Packing > “Qualifying Test,” incidentNew York Herald Tribune, 1937

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Court Packing > “Step by Step,” incidentBuffalo News, 1937

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FDR’s Critics > Huey Long and Father Charles Coughlin incident

  • Populist critics of President Roosevelt

    • Long - Louisiana Governor and U.S. Senator; the rich should “share wealth”

    • Coughlin - Catholic priest,

  • Both used radio effectively

    • Long - the rich should “share wealth” (as Kingfish from Amos’n’Andy show)

    • Coughlin - sermons, attacked “money changers,” but also socialists

  • Both had large following in the early 1930s

    • Long - 8 million members of Share Our Wealth Clubs

    • Coughlin - 40 million listeners in 1930

  • At first support FDR, then disillusioned

    • Long - till 1933 as U.S. Senator (Democrat)

    • Coughlin - till 1935 through sermons on the radio

  • Long shot in 1935, used for the main character in Robert Penn Warren’s novel All the King’s Men

  • Coughlin turned anti-semitic and conservative after FDR’s reelection in 1936, ordered by his bishop to cease all political activity in 1940

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FDR’s Critics > Huey Long, incidentMy First Days in the White House (1935)

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Migration > John Steinbeck, incidentThe Grapes of Wrath

  • Novel published in 1939

  • Film in 1940 (closely follows the novel)

  • Reinforced the belief that migrants fled the dust storms

  • In fact, they fled for varied reasons, including drought, falling agricultural prices, and mechanization of agriculture

  • 16,000 farmers fled dust storms

  • 400,000 migrated, from a larger area in the Southwest

  • Famous scene: farmer confronts a man who is about to level his house, used the plight of farmers to convey a sense of unfocused outrage shared by many others during the Depression - people couldn’t figure out who was to blame for the disaster

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Politics and Movies > Screwball comedies incident

My Man Godfrey, 1936

Frank Capra, Meet John Doe, 1941

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Popular Front > Artists who were affiliated with the movement

Frank Capra

Charlie Chaplin

Orson Welles

Duke Ellington

Dorothea Lange

John Steinbeck

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Disney Strike > “Walt Disney as the men who work for him see him. They portray him as unhappy because the strike is successful.” PM (1941)

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Disney Strike > “Under the mask of the American Society of Screen Cartoonists, strikers claim is a company union,” PM (1941)

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Disney Strike > “How a guy feels the first time he pickets. Most strikers were never union members before.” PM (1941)

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Disney Strike > “The striking screen cartoon guild follows the difficult road of union organization, leaving alleged company union behind.” PM (1941)

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Disney Strike > “Here is the artist’s version of an ideal picket. The Disney workers make the ideal striker; there are mighty few labor disputes in which just about every striker can make his own picket sign.” PM (1941)

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Disney Strike > Life of an animator, as the public imagines it and in reality, without union protection. PM (1941)

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Disney Strike > “It’s OK for the seven dwarfs to whistle while they work, but not the girls who work for Disney. Discipline is strict. PM (1941)