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The Great Depression The Crash > Economy Compared to Television, 1929 The Crash > “It’s so nice to have Daddy home all the time now,” Life , 1930 Unemployment > Deportation of Mexicans, 1931 Unemployment > Jobs Listed by Race, 1939 Poverty > Hooverville, 1933 Hoover > “We can do it!” 1931

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The Great Depression

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The great depression l.jpg

The Great Depression


The crash economy compared to television 1929 l.jpg

The Crash > Economy Compared to Television, 1929


The crash it s so nice to have daddy home all the time now life 1930 l.jpg

The Crash > “It’s so nice to have Daddy home all the time now,” Life, 1930


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Unemployment > Deportation of Mexicans, 1931


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Unemployment > Jobs Listed by Race, 1939


Poverty hooverville 1933 l.jpg

Poverty > Hooverville, 1933


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Hoover > “We can do it!” 1931


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Hoover > “Fundamentally, the ship was sound,” New Yorker, 1932


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The New Deal > Historiographic Debates

  • 1952, Herbert Hoover

    • New Deal failed because it “attempted to collectivize the American system of life.”

  • 1940s-1960s, “liberal consensus” historians

    • New Deal was a “pragmatic” revolution that expanded the role of the federal government in American life.

  • mid-1960s, “New Left” historians

    • New Deal was fundamentally conservative, it could but failed to redistribute power in American society; it protected American capitalism.

  • 1970s-2000s, contemporary historians

    • New Deal could not have done more than it did, because of conservative Congress, the lack of adequate government bureaucracy, and localist and antistatist political culture.


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The New Deal > Stages

  • 1932 - FDR elected

    • First New Deal (“the hundred days”)

  • 1934 - Strike wave

  • 1934 - Leftist Democrats win the majority in congressional elections

    • Second New Deal (“the second hundred days”)

  • 1935 - Supreme Court unanimously declares NRA unconstitutional

  • 1936 - FDR reelected in a landslide

  • 1937 - Court-packing

    • FDR proposes but fails to implement unpopular Supreme Court reform

  • 1938 - Republicans and conservative Democrats regain seats in the House

    • As a reform movement, New Deal is over


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New Deal > Private FDR Photograph, 1930s


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New Deal > Public FDR Photographs, 1930s


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New Deal > FDR Giving a Fireside Chat, 1937


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New Deal > Banking Crisis Advertisement, 1931


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New Deal > One Hundred Days Cartoon, Lynn Item, 1933


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New Deal > One Hundred Days Cartoon, Houston Post, 1933


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New Deal > TVA: Big Ridge Dam, TN


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New Deal > Song from Thanks a Million, 1935

They started up the NRA to keep the big bad wolf away

Then FDR began to be a headache to the GOP

Now that codes are everywhere we’ve got initials in our hair

The farmer’s IOU is O.K. since Congress formed the AAA

The CCC chops down a tree and sells it pronto FOB …

The RFC and NHA led millions to the AAA

The AAA has crops it cuts and all of us are going nuts!

---

NRA - National Recovery Administration

AAA - Agricultural Adjustment Administration

CCC - Civilian Conservation Corps

RFC - Reconstruction Finance Corporation

NHA - National Housing Authority

FDR - Franklin Delano Roosevelt

GOP - Grand Old Party

FOB - Freight on Board


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New Deal > NRA’s Blue Eagle Photograph, 1934


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New Deal > CCC Worker Photograph, 1930


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New Deal > Farm Holiday, 1930 and Archibald Willard, The Spirit of ‘76, 1876


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The Dust Bowl > Dust Storm Approaching Startford, Texas, 1930s


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The Dust Bowl > Map of Erosion and Dust on the Plains


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The Dust Bowl > Traveling from South Texas to the Arkansas Delta, 1936


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FSA > Dorothea Lange, Migrant Mother, March 1936


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FSA > Arthur Rothstein, Steer Skull, Pennington County, South Dakota 1936


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FSA > Arthur Rothstein, the same skull on dry sun-baked earth


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FSA > Arthur Rothstein, the same skull, cows grazing in the background


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FSA > Walker Evans, Burroughs Photographs, Hale County, Alabama, 1936


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Second New Deal > Social Security Poster, 1936


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Second New Deal > Works Progress Administration poster


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1936 Elections > Literary Digest and Gallup polls

Literary Digest Final Poll

Landon57%

Roosevelt43

States for Landon32

States for FDR16

A.I.P.O. (Gallup) Final Poll

Roosevelt 55.7%

Landon 44.3

States for FDR40

States for Landon 6

On the line 2

Election Results

Roosevelt61%

Landon49%

States for FDR46

States for Landon2

January 1936 Gallup Poll

By Income

Roosevelt Landon

Upper third41% 59%

Lower third7030

Reliefers82 18

October 1936 Gallup Poll

Farmers

Roosevelt 52.6%

Landon 42.1%

Women

Roosevelt 51.4%

Landon 44.8%

Young People (21–24 Years)

Roosevelt 57.4%

Landon 38.4%

Reliefers

Roosevelt 78.8%

Landon 14.0%


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1936 Elections > Percentage vote for Roosevelt in black districts, 1932 and 1936


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Labor > Wagner Act, 1935: United Automobile Workers poster addressing Ford workers


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Labor > Charlie Chaplin, Modern Times, 1936


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Labor > A CIO poster quoting FDR


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Labor > The rise in union membership


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Labor > Strike patterns


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Labor > Sit-down strike in Flint, MI


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Labor > UAW organizers Walter Reuther and Richard Frankensteen pose for press photographers, River Rouge Plant, May 26, 1937


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Labor > They were approached by Ford Service Department men


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Labor > Ford men attacked


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Labor > Reuther and Frankensteen immediately after the incident


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Labor > Women’s sit-down strike in a Goody Nut Shop, 1937


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Labor > Sit-down strike cartoon, New York World-Telegram, March 1937


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Labor > CIO photomagazine, Photo-History, July 1937


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Backlash > Memorial Day Massacre, May 29, 1937


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Backlash > The Hilo Massacre, August 1, 1938


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Court Packing > Schecter Poultry Corp. v. United States, 1935

  • A small company - small firms objected the most to limits on hours and wages

  • Charles Evans Hughes for the majority: “Extraordinary conditions do not create or enlarge constitutional power.”

    • Congress cannot relegate power to the executive branch, even in an emergency

    • NRA infringes on “freedom of contract,” through industrial price and wage codes


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Court Packing > “Fall In!,” Richmond Times Dispatch, 1937


Court packing he just ain t fast enough brooklyn citizen 1937 l.jpg

Court Packing > “He Just Ain’t Fast Enough,” Brooklyn Citizen, 1937


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Court Packing > “Qualifying Test,” New York Herald Tribune, 1937


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Court Packing > “Step by Step,” Buffalo News, 1937


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New Deal > Anti-Roosevelt cartoon, 1938


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FDR’s Critics > Huey Long and Father Charles Coughlin

  • Populist critics of President Roosevelt

    • Long - Louisiana Governor and U.S. Senator; the rich should “share wealth”

    • Coughlin - Catholic priest,

  • Both used radio effectively

    • Long - the rich should “share wealth” (as Kingfish from Amos’n’Andy show)

    • Coughlin - sermons, attacked “money changers,” but also socialists

  • Both had large following in the early 1930s

    • Long - 8 million members of Share Our Wealth Clubs

    • Coughlin - 40 million listeners in 1930

  • At first support FDR, then disillusioned

    • Long - till 1933 as U.S. Senator (Democrat)

    • Coughlin - till 1935 through sermons on the radio

  • Long shot in 1935, used for the main character in Robert Penn Warren’s novel All the King’s Men

  • Coughlin turned anti-semitic and conservative after FDR’s reelection in 1936, ordered by his bishop to cease all political activity in 1940


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FDR’s Critics > Huey Long, My First Days in the White House (1935)


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Migration > John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath

  • Novel published in 1939

  • Film in 1940 (closely follows the novel)

  • Reinforced the belief that migrants fled the dust storms

  • In fact, they fled for varied reasons, including drought, falling agricultural prices, and mechanization of agriculture

  • 16,000 farmers fled dust storms

  • 400,000 migrated, from a larger area in the Southwest

  • Famous scene: farmer confronts a man who is about to level his house, used the plight of farmers to convey a sense of unfocused outrage shared by many others during the Depression - people couldn’t figure out who was to blame for the disaster


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Politics and Movies > Screwball comedies

My Man Godfrey, 1936

Frank Capra, Meet John Doe, 1941


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Politics and Movies > The Marx Brothers, Duck Soup, 1933


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Politics and Radio > Orson Welles, “War of the Worlds,” 1938


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Popular Front > Artists who were affiliated with the movement

Frank Capra

Charlie Chaplin

Orson Welles

Duke Ellington

Dorothea Lange

John Steinbeck


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Popular Front > Scottsboro March announcement, Daily Worker, 1934


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Disney Strike > “Walt Disney as the men who work for him see him. They portray him as unhappy because the strike is successful.” PM (1941)


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Disney Strike > “Under the mask of the American Society of Screen Cartoonists, strikers claim is a company union,” PM (1941)


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Disney Strike > “How a guy feels the first time he pickets. Most strikers were never union members before.” PM (1941)


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Disney Strike > “The striking screen cartoon guild follows the difficult road of union organization, leaving alleged company union behind.” PM (1941)


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Disney Strike > “Here is the artist’s version of an ideal picket. The Disney workers make the ideal striker; there are mighty few labor disputes in which just about every striker can make his own picket sign.” PM (1941)


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Disney Strike > Life of an animator, as the public imagines it and in reality, without union protection. PM (1941)


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Disney Strike > “It’s OK for the seven dwarfs to whistle while they work, but not the girls who work for Disney. Discipline is strict. PM (1941)


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