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The Clash of Cultures: Europeans in the Americas . Readings: http://faculty.fullerton.edu/nfitch/nehaha/index.htm Spodek, pp. 452-458. Aztecs/Mexica--Mexico. Nahuatl Mayan Quetzacoatl Tenochtitlan Lake Texcoco Montezuma II takes power (1502). Cortes Decides to Conquer Mexico.

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the clash of cultures europeans in the americas

The Clash of Cultures: Europeans in the Americas

Readings: http://faculty.fullerton.edu/nfitch/nehaha/index.htm

Spodek, pp. 452-458

aztecs mexica mexico
Aztecs/Mexica--Mexico
  • Nahuatl
  • Mayan
  • Quetzacoatl
  • Tenochtitlan
  • Lake Texcoco
  • Montezuma II takes power (1502)
cortes decides to conquer mexico
Cortes Decides to Conquer Mexico
  • Spaniards Conquer Cuba
  • 1517—Spaniards begin to explore Mexico
  • Aztecs may have experienced bad omens, but an invention?
  • February 10, 1519 Hernan Cortes defies Governor Diego Velasquez
  • June 3, 1519 Spaniards arrive at Cempoala with 11 ships, 600 soldiers, 200 native servants, 16 horses, 32 crossbows, 13 muskets, and 14 cannons
  • Cortez’s translator, Jerome de Aguilar spoke Mayan.
cortes finds a translator and mistress
Cortes finds a Translator and Mistress
  • Dona Marina is also known as La Malinche or Malintzin.
  • Dona Marina spoke Mayan and Nahuatl.
  • She became Cortez’s translator and mistress
  • Mexica called Cortez El Malinche in some documents
cholula massacre
Cholula Massacre
  • September 2-20, 1519—the Spaniards fight with the Tlaxcalans but end by winning Tlaxcalan allies
  • October 1519—Massacre at Cholula
cortez and moctezuma
Cortez and Moctezuma
  • November 8, 1519 – Cortes enters Tenochtitlan
    • Does Moctezuma believe he’s Quetzacoatl? Modern historians – no, documents ambiguous
  • Panfilo de Navaez – May 1520
    • Cortes leaves Pedro de Alvarado in Charge
moctezuma killed
Moctezuma Killed
  • Pedro de Alvarado attacks Mexica during festival
  • June 1520 – Moctezuma killed
  • Ultimately replaced by Cuauhtemoc
la noche triste
La Noche Triste
  • Spaniards forced to flee
  • La Noche Triste – June 30, 1520
    • Cortes loses 2/3 of his men and many horses
    • Spanish conquest not inevitable
cortes takes tenochtitlan
Cortes takes Tenochtitlan
  • July 1520—Spaniards reach Tlaxcala and are welcomed
  • July 1520-May 1521 Cortez regroups with Tlaxcala help—builds brigantines
  • October 1520—Smallpox decimating the population of Tenochtitlan
  • Mexica fortify Tenochtitlan like European cities
  • May 1521—Spaniards lay siege to Tenochtitlan.
  • July 1521—After failing to take Tenochtitlan, Cortez decides to destroy it.
  • August 13, 1521—Cuathemoc either surrenders or is captured and the Battle of Tenochtitlan is over with the city in ruins.
slide11
Peru
  • Inca Huayna Capac ruled generally well from 1493-1525.
  • He had an army of 50,000 loyal followers.
  • The Incas thought he was a god or god-like
  • Problem: Religion and Ancestor Worship of Incas (The name was given to the people ruled as well as the ruler.)
peru continued
Peru (continued)
  • When Capec died, he was preserved as a mummy and housed in a sacred chamber with other mummified Incas.
  • The mummified Inca retained possession of all estates and properties held in life. Inca nobility managed the property of the dead Incas.
  • By 1525, so much property in hands of dead Incas, almost none available for live Incas
the incas
The Incas
  • Huascar (1525-1532) succeeded his father as Inca and was crowned at Cuzco.
  • Proposed burying the mummies and selling their property so living could have land.
incas
Incas
  • Atahualpa (1532-1533)
  • Atahualpa was Huascar’s half-brother
  • He had tried to get Huascar to agree to share power
  • Huascar refused
  • Atahualpa not legal heir but had support of nobility – upset at mummy proposal.
  • There was a civil war and Atahualpa won.
spanish conquest of peru
Spanish Conquest of Peru
  • Francisco Pizarro (c. 1475-1541)
  • May 13, 1532 – Alahualpa wins, Pizarro reaches northern Peru
  • Did Atahualpa think Pizarro was the God Virachocha, who he believed would return? Or, a Spanish invention?
  • Pizarro tricked Atahualpa—killed him after he got Atahualpa’s gold
  • Fierce resistance for at least 100 years
how did the spaniards control the americas
How did the Spaniards control the Americas?
  • Disease (especially smallpox) was one control – not intentional at first
  • Peru’s population fell from 1.3 million in 1570 to 600,000 in 1620.
  • Mexico’s population fell from 25.3 million Indians in 1519 to 1 million in 1605
  • Native population had no immunity because of isolation from the population networks of Africa and Eurasia.
economic control
Economic Control
  • Natives were also treated poorly by the Spaniards. They were forced to work on mines and sugar plantations after Spaniards took land from them.
  • In 1511 King Ferdinand concluded that “one black could do the work of four Indians.” That started the birth of Slavery and massive imports of Africans into the Americas.
  • Encomienda Plantation/Fazenda
    • New agriculture
    • New livestock
    • New labor
cultural control
Cultural Control
  • Paper
  • City Building
  • Race
  • Language of Color-based racial thinking
  • Gender
  • Religion
  • Government
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