Texture profile analysis a closer look at this popular way of characterising the structure of foods
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Texture Profile Analysis A closer look at this popular way of characterising the structure of foods. TPA - The History. General Foods texturometer developed Force/time plot became known as a texture profile

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Texture Profile Analysis A closer look at this popular way of characterising the structure of foods

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Texture Profile AnalysisA closer look at this popularway of characterising thestructure of foods


TPA - The History

  • General Foods texturometer developed

    • Force/time plot became known as a texture profile

  • Szczesniak defined specific terms which correlated well with sensory panel scores - texture profile analysis

    • 7 parameters were listed; 5 measured and 2 calculated


TPA - The History

  • Malcolm Bourne adapted the Instron to perform TPA and parameters were slightly modified


TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)

  • Known as the “two bite test”

  • Provides textural parameters which correlate well withsensory evaluation parameters


TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)

FIRST BITE

  • Known as the “two bite test”

  • Provides textural parameters which correlate well withsensory evaluation parameters

FORCE

TIME


TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)

SECOND BITE

  • Known as the “two bite test”

  • Provides textural parameters which correlate well withsensory evaluation parameters

FORCE

TIME


TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)

Movement of the Probe

Force

o

Time


TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)

Movement of the PROBE

Force

o

DOWN

Time

‘COMPRESSION’


TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)

Movement of the PROBE

UP

Force

o

Time

‘Decompression’


TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)

Movement of the PROBE

Force

o

Time

DOWN


TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)

Movement of the PROBE

UP

Force

o

Time


TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)

Analysis of the data

Fracturability

Force

o

Time


Definition

The force at which there is

the first significant break in

the curve (originally called

the brittleness)

NB - Not always present

TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)

Analysis of the data

Fracturability

Force

o

Time


TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)

Analysis of the data

Hardness 1

Hardness 2

Force

o

Time


Definition

The maximum force during

the first cycle of compression.

Is also known as the

“firmness”.

TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)

Analysis of the data

Hardness

Hardness 2

Force

o

Time


TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)

Analysis of the data

Area 1

Area 2

Force

B

A

o

Time


Definition

The ratio of the positive force

area during the second cycle

of compression to that of the

first cycle.

TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)

Analysis of the data

Force

B

A

o

Time


Definition

The ratio of the positive force

area during the second cycle

of compression to that of the

first cycle.

TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)

Analysis of the data

Force

B

A

o

Time


TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)

Analysis of the data

Force

B

A

o

Time


TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)

Analysis of the data

Force

Stringiness

o

Time


Note

Defined as the distance that the

product is extended during de-

compression before separating

from the probe.

Not an original TPA parameter

and is not included in the TPA

analysis macro at this point.

TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)

Analysis of the data

Force

Stringiness

o

Time


TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)

Analysis of the data

Springiness

Force

o

Time


Definition

The height that the food

recovers during the time that

elapses between the end of the

first cycle and the start of the

second cycle.

TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)

Analysis of the data

Springiness

Force

o

Time


TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)

Analysis of the data

Springiness

Force

o

Time


TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)

Analysis of the data

Work of Adhesion

Force

o

Time

Adhesivness


Definition

The negative area for

the first compression cycle -

representing the work needed

to overcome the attractive

forces between the surfaces of

the probe and the food.

TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)

Analysis of the data

Work of Adhesion

Force

o

Time


Definition

The maximum negative force

of the first compression cycle

TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)

Analysis of the data

Force

o

Time

Adhesivness


Resilience

  • Not an original TPA parameter.

  • Developed from looking closely at elastic recovery

  • A measurement of how the sample recovers from deformation.

  • Ratio of the first UP ( decompression) stroke to the first DOWN ( compression) stroke


Initial Modulus

  • Not an original Texture Profile Analysis parameter

  • Developed from looking closer at curve before fracture

  • Initial Modulus = Initial Stress / Initial Strain

  • Initial Stress:taken as mean force from 0.5 -1.5secs and then dividing by the Contact Area

  • Initial Strain:calculated at the 1.5 second point


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