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ILLINOIS STATE BAR ASSOCIATION Law Ed Series Real Estate Law Section Council . “REAL ESTATE LAW UPDATE ” Wednesday, September 15, 1999, Eastland Suites Conference Center, Bloomington, Il. Thursday, September 23, 1999, First Chicago Center, Chicago, Il.

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Illinois state bar association law ed series real estate law section council
ILLINOIS STATE BAR ASSOCIATIONLaw Ed Series Real Estate Law Section Council

“REAL ESTATE LAW UPDATE ”

  • Wednesday, September 15, 1999, Eastland Suites Conference Center, Bloomington, Il.

  • Thursday, September 23, 1999, First Chicago Center, Chicago, Il.


Illinois institute of continuing legal education
ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF CONTINUING LEGAL EDUCATION

“A PRACTICAL APPROACH

TO MORTGAGE LIENS ON REAL ESTATE”

STEVEN B. BASHAW, Moderator

McBride Baker & Coles, Chicago & Oak Brook Terrace, Illinois


Types of mortgages
Types of Mortgages:

  • Specific, consensual liens

  • Practical Approach: Lien priority distinction

  • Two vs. Three party instruments

  • Equitable Mortgages: When a deed is a mortgage and other problems

    • Harney v. Colwell, (1st Dist. 1942) 324 Ill,App. 173, 41 N.E. 2d 123)


Types of mortgages1
Types of Mortgages:

  • Purchase Money Mortgage

    Priority over prior liens against grantee to extent of purchase debt

    Application of Busse, (1st Dist. 1984) 124 Ill.App.3d 433, 464 N.E.2d 561.

    Bank of Homewood, (1st Dist. 1964) 48 Ill.App.2d 316, 199 N.E.2d 293.


Mortgage lien priority
MORTGAGE LIEN PRIORITY

  • “Prior in time (perfection) is prior in right”

  • Firstmark Standard Life Insurance v. Superior Bank, FSB, (1st Dist. 1995) 271 Ill.App.2d 435, 649 N.E.2d 465

  • Subject to real estate taxes, special assessments and mechanic’s liens

  • EXCEPTIONS:

  • Statutory: Recording laws & mechanic’s liens

  • Case Law: Purchase money mortgage rules

  • Contract: Subordination clauses


Enforceability limitations

ENFORCEABILITY & LIMITATIONS

An action to foreclose mortgage: 10yrs after right of action accrues

735 ILCS 5/13-115

Lorocque v. Baker, (2nd Dist. 1938) 295 Ill.App.1, 14 N.E.2d 502.


Enforceability limitations1
ENFORCEABILITY & LIMITATIONS

Statute of Limitations on mortgage: 20 years from date of last payment

735 ILCS 5/13-116

Livingston v. Meyers, (1955) 6 Ill.2d 325, 129 N.E.2d 12


Enforceability limitations2
ENFORCEABILITY & LIMITATIONS

No Maturity Date: 30 years from date of instrument

735 ILCS 5/13-116

Zuls v. Bowen, (1st Dist. 1053) 351 Ill.App. 492, 115 N.E.2d 577.


Title vs lien theory
TITLE vs LIEN THEORY

  • ISSUE: Rights of possession:

  • Title theory = immediate possession;

  • Lien theory = adjudication

  • Illinois = Intermediary estate by case law


Title vs lien theory1
TITLE vs LIEN THEORY

  • ILLINOIS MORTGAGE FORECLOSURE LAW; 735 ILCS 5/15-1701

    • Distinction between residential vs. non-residential up to expiration of redemption

      • Residential presumption mortgagor will continue in possession until at least judgment

      • Non-Residential presumption mortgagee will obtain possession IF the mortgage documents provide and a reasonable probability of ultimately prevailing


Title vs lien theory2
TITLE vs LIEN THEORY

  • Post Redemption

    735 ILCS 5/15-1701(c)(2): “rent” @ lesser of interest under the mortgage or fmv rental

  • A Lease subordinate to mortgage shall not be automatically terminated

    735 ILCS 5/15-1504(3)(T); 735 ILCS 5/1508(g)

    Kell/Lehr & Associates v. O’Brien, (2nd Dist. 1990), 194 Ill.App.3d 380, 551 N.E.2d 419 - prepaid rent

  • Mortgagee is entitled to designate Receiver: 735 ILCS 5/15-1702(b)

  • Priority Mortgagee is entitled to priority in all matters relating to possession: 735 ILCS 5/15/1702(c)


Enforcement of priority
ENFORCEMENT OF PRIORITY

  • The Practical approach ALWAYS considers priority of lien:

  • Foreclosure of priority lien extinguishes subordinate liens;

  • Baldi v. Chicago Title, (1st Dist. 1983), 113 Ill.App.3d 29, 446 N.E.2d 1205 and Orloff v. Petak, (3rd Dist. 1992), 224 Ill.App.3d 638, 587 N.E.2d 37.


Enforcement of priority1
ENFORCEMENT OF PRIORITY

A lien’s priority CAN be affected (i.e.., altered) in litigation

Mid-America Federal Savings v. Liberty Bank, (2nd Dist. 1990) 562 N.E.2d 1188; priority position prejudiced by failure to participate in judgment


Enforcement of priority2
ENFORCEMENT OF PRIORITY

  • Rights to surplus

    Kankakee Federal v. Mueller, (3rd Dist. 1985), 134 Ill.App.3d 943, 482 N.E.2d 332

    St. Charles Savings & Loan v. Estate of Sundberg, (2nd Dist. 1986) 150 Ill.App.3d 100, 501 N.E.2d 322.

  • Rights of subordinate lien holders; 735 ILCS 5/15-1505

    Joliet Federal v. Bloomington Loan Co., (3rd Dist. 1970) 131 Ill.App.2d 619, 265 N.E.2d 400

    735 ILCS 5/15-1508(B)(3) & 1506(h); Reservation of issue of priorities to confirmation of sale


Mechanic s liens a priority exercise
Mechanic’s Liens; A Priority Exercise

  • Strict Compliance 770 ILCS 60/1

    Claim recorded within 4 mos. last work 770 ILCS 60.7

    Suit (by complaint or countercomplaint) within 2 years

    Priority ONLY to extent of enhancement

    Mutual Services, Inc.. v. Ballantrae Development, (1st Dist. 1987) 159 Ill.App.3d 549, 510 N.E.2d 1219

    Lyons Savings v. Gash Associates, (1st Dist. 1996) 665 N.E.2d 326


Irs liens and mortgages
IRS LIENS AND MORTGAGES

  • 28 USC 2410 - no special priority status - first in time, first in right

  • Requires Judicial proceeding to terminate

  • USA special service requirements and redemption

    Longer of state law redemption or 120 days from sale for Fed. Tax Liens

    Non-Tax Liens: ONE YEAR from sale

  • Administrative Release: 28 USC 2410(e)


Illinois revenue liens condominium assessments
Illinois Revenue Liens (& Condominium Assessments)

  • 735 ILCS 5/15-1501(b)(6) & (g)

    No “immunity” in foreclosure cases;

    Service by certified mail to Atty. Gen.

  • 765 ILCS 605/9

    Sale extinguishes assessments prior to the 1st day of the month following the sale


Ill rev liens condo assessments collide
Ill Rev. Liens & Condo Assessments Collide:

Lake Hinsdale Village Condominium v. Dept. of Public Aid (2nd Dist. 1998), 698 N.E.2d 214

  • Assessment lien “relates back” to date of first perfection by filing notice of claim for lien as each month accrues!


Unsigned and forged mortgage documents
Unsigned and Forged Mortgage Documents

  • Consensual Lien is void if forgery - EXCEPT to the extent ratified

    Resolution Trust Corp. v. Hardisty, (3rd Dist. 1995 646 N.E.2d 628; primer on forged mortgages.

    Grundy County National Bank v. Cavanaugh, (3rd Dist. 1982), 105 Ill. App.3d 718, 434 N.E.2d 803; failure of land trustee to execute overcome by beneficiary’s execution of letter of direction


Waiver of homestead
WAIVER OF HOMESTEAD

  • 735 ILCS 5/12-901; Statutory “lien” for $7,500/each owner

    • Only available as to third parties, NOT among co-tenants

    • Each resident/owner, but not to exceed $15,000 total; First National Bank of Moline v. Mohr, (3rd Dist. 1987), 162 Ill.App.3d 584, 515 N.E.2d 1356

    • May be claimed by surviving spouse; 735 ILCS 5/12-901, 901

  • “Practical Approach”: Every mortgage should contain a waiver of homestead and be signed by spouse


Tenants by the entirety
TENANTS BY THE ENTIRETY

  • 735 ILCS 5/12-112

    • Property held in the entirety can NOT be sold to satisfy the debt of one spouse

    • E.J. McKernan Co. v. Gregory, (2nd Dist. 1994), 268 Ill.App. 383, 643 N.E.2d 1370

    • In re Marriage of Del Giudice, (1st Dist. 1997), 287 Ill.App.3d 222, 678 N.E.2d 47

    • Amendment to 735 5/12-112; exception for “fraudulent conveyance”

    • Harris Bank v. Weber, (2nd Dist. 1998) 1998 Ill.App. Lexis 601


Assignments of mortgages
ASSIGNMENTS OF MORTGAGES:

  • Assignments recorded in addition to endorsement of note

    • Klehm v. Grecia Chalet, Ltd., (1st Dist. 1987) 164 Ill.App.3d 610, 518 N.E.2d 187

    • 205 ILCS 635/3-7; borrower must be informed of transfer and granted forbearance if necessary

  • MERS: Mortgage Electronic Recording System


Release and satisfaction of mortgages
RELEASE AND SATISFACTION OF MORTGAGES

  • Statutory Penalty: Illinois Mortgage Act 765 ILCS 905/0 et seq..

    • Release in recordable form within 30 days; 765 ILCS 905/2

    • Not applicable to foreclosure proceedings; Liberty Loan Corp. v. FNMA, (2nd Dist. 1986) 142 Ill.App.3d 383, 492 N.E.2d 237

    • Penalty: $200 plus reasonable attorney’s fees in civil action; 765 ILCS 905/4


Effect of bankruptcy
EFFECT OF BANKRUPTCY

  • Stay of enforcement of lien; 11 USC 362

  • Discharge of personal liability on NOTE; In Re Bouchelle, (M.D. Fl. 1989) 98 BR 81

  • Does NOT release the lien of the mortgage or enjoin foreclosure post modification of stay; Farmers State Bank of Sherard v. Hansen, (3rd Dist. 1990), 196 Ill.App.3d 295, 553 N.E.2d 751

  • Last moment to file to stop foreclosure:

    • FNMA v. McEWEN, N.D. Il. 1996) 194 B.R. 594; sale “conducted” only at confirmation

    • In Re Beatty (Bankr. N.D. Il 1990), 116 B.R. 112 and In Re Christian, (Bankr. N.D. Il. 1996) 199 B.R. 382


Judicial vs nonjudicial foreclosures
JUDICIAL vs NONJUDICIAL FORECLOSURES

  • 735 ILCS 5/15-1405; Prohibition of exercise of “Power of Sale”

  • See also 15-1401 (deed in lieu) 15-1402 (consent judgment) and 15-1106 for applicability of IMFL to assignments of beneficial interest and articles of agreement for deed

  • HUD’s Single Family Mortgage Foreclosure Act of 1994

    • 12 USC 3751; Balanced Budget Reconciliation Act of 995

    • Only HUD held mortgages

    • Notice and sale by “power of sale” resulting in possible 21 day notice to sale period


Deficiencies surplus entitlement
DEFICIENCIES, SURPLUS & ENTITLEMENT

  • Created at Confirmation of Report of Sale; 735 ILCS 5/15-1508

  • Deficiency:

    • Heritage Standard Bank v. Heritage Standard Bank, (2nd Dist. 1986) 149 Ill.App.3d 563, 500 N.E.2d 60

    • State Bank of Antioch v. Nelson, (2nd Dist. 1985) 132 Ill.App.3d 120, 477 N.E.2d 77


Deficiencies surplus entitlement1
DEFICIENCIES, SURPLUS & ENTITLEMENT

  • Surplus:

    • Application: 735 ILCS 5/15-1512

      • Reasonable expense of sale

      • Expenses of maintaining the premises

      • satisfaction of claims in order of priority as adjudicated

      • Surplus to be held until further order of court

        • Hart v. Wingart, (1876) 83 Ill. 282

        • Kankakee Federal v. Mueller, (3rd Dist. 1985), 134 Ill.App.3d 943, 482 N.E.2d 332

        • St. Charles Savings & Loan v. Estate of Sundberg, (2nd Dist. 1986) 150 Ill.App.3d 100, 501 N.E.2d 322.


Emerging surplus lien law
Emerging Surplus & Lien Law

  • Members Equity Credit Union v. Duefel, (3rd Dist. 1998) 692 N.E,2d 865; Buyers take subject to outstanding debts vs. “marshalling asset” theory

  • BCGS, LLC v. Jaster, (2nd Dist. 1998) 700 N.E.2d 1075; foreclosure extinguishes all liens over which court had jurisdiction in favor of bidder; even husband of owner!


Alternative dispute resolution mortgage liens
ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION & MORTGAGE LIENS:

  • DEED IN LIEU OF FORECLOSURE

    • 735 ILCS 5/15-1401

    • Voluntary

    • Presumed quid pro quo: conveyance for release of liability

    • Olney Trust Bank v. Pitts, (5th Dist. 1990), 200 Ill.App.3d 917, 528 N.E.2d 398.


Alternative dispute resolution mortgage liens1
ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION & MORTGAGE LIENS:

  • CONSENT JUDGMENT

    • 735 ILCS 5/15-1402

    • Voluntary

    • Presumed quid pro quo: waiver of redemption and conveyance by judgment for release of liability

    • 735 ILCS 5/15-1402; subordinate liens foreclosed, EXCEPT U.S.A,


Alternative dispute resolution mortgage liens2
ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION & MORTGAGE LIENS:

  • Shortening Redemption periods

    • 735 ILCS 5/15-1604;Special Right to Redeem

      • Residential real estate occupied by owner

      • Plaintiff bids deficiency

      • Revival of redemption for 30 days

      • 15-1604(b) payment of bid only


Alternative dispute resolution mortgage liens3
ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION & MORTGAGE LIENS:

  • 735 ILCS 5/15-1603(b)(3); Value of Premises

    • If value of property is less than 90% of total debt

    • AND, mortgagee waives right to deficiency

    • Redemption expires 60 days after judgment

  • 735 ILCS 5/15-1603(b)(4); Abandonment

    • Finding of “abandonment”

    • Redemption expires 30 days after judgment


The redemption process
THE REDEMPTION PROCESS

  • 735 ILCS 5/15-1603

    • Notice of Intent to Redeem

      • Not less than 15 days prior to exercise of right to redeem

      • Certificate filed with the Clerk of the Court

    • Mortgagee’s Estimate of Redemption

      • Filed with Clerk of the Court

      • Paid Receipts or affidavits attached

    • Contested hearing; 735 ILCS 5/15-1604(f) and (g)


The practical side to redemption
The “Practical Side” to Redemption:

  • Fleet Mortgage v. Deal, (1st Dist. 1997), 287 Ill.App.3d 385, 678 N.E.2d 35

  • Commercial Credit v. Espinosa, (1st Dist. 1997), ___ Ill.App.3d __, 689 N.E.2d 282


That s all
That’s All!

  • Thanks for attending! We hope you have enjoyed this presentation. If you have questions, please feel free to ask. We’re happy to help.

  • For a detailed listing of the upcoming CLE schedule visit our web site at http://www/illinoiscle.com


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