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Hybrid Cars. Drew Tepper. What is a hybrid?. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) include both a combustion engine as well as an electric motor. If we had better batteries, we would not need hybrids at all. Hybrids can be implemented in many kinds of vehicles. Global-Warming: Still An Issue.

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Hybrid Cars

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Hybrid cars l.jpg

Hybrid Cars

Drew Tepper


What is a hybrid l.jpg

What is a hybrid?

  • Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) include both a combustion engine as well as an electric motor.

  • If we had better batteries, we would not need hybrids at all.

  • Hybrids can be implemented in many kinds of vehicles.


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Global-Warming: Still An Issue.

  • Hybrids are not zero-emission vehicles.

  • Will cut down emissions of global-warming pollutants by a third to a half.

  • Later models may cut these emissions down by even more.


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Why hybrids?

  • Regenerative braking actually makes city driving more economical than on the highway.

  • Fuel efficiency is greatly increased (twice).

  • Emissions are greatly decreased.

  • Dependency on fossils fuels can be decreased.

  • Hybrids can be run on alternative fuels as well.

  • New materials can be implemented.


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EPA at work

  • Federal guidelines for emissions:

    • Tier 1 took effect in 1997

    • Tier 2 will phased-in beginning 2004.

  • National LEV (NLEV): builds on the California Emissions Standards until Tier 2 is implemented.

  • LEV II: California Emissions Standards.


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ULEV/SULEV

  • Tier 1, TLEV, LEV, ULEV, SULEV, ZEV.

  • CARB: California Air Resources Board.

  • CO2 reductions not called for. Only HC, CO, NOx.

  • Cars can be certified Low Emissions Vehicles but at the same time have high fuel consumption.


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Reductions


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Tax Incentives

  • ‘The IRS has determined that purchasers of a new Honda Insight, Honda Civic Hybrid or Toyota Prius are eligible for a "Clean-Fuel" vehicle tax deduction of $2,000. The current incentive is scheduled to phase out in 2004-06. ‘

    www.fueleconomy.gov/


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Some EPA facts

  • Every gallon of gasoline your vehicle burns puts 20 pounds of CO2 into the atmosphere.

  • A 5 mpg difference in fuel economy equates to about 2,800 pounds of CO2 a year.

www.epa.gov/greenvehicles


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Tons of greenhouse gas

  • NLEV program does not take CO2 into account but let’s see some numbers:

    • Honda Insight: 3.4 t/yr.

    • Honda Civic Hybrid: 3.9 t/yr.

    • Toyota Prius: 4.0t/yr.

    • Ford Explorer: 11.0 t/yr.

    • Honda Civic: 5.7 t/yr. (calculated)


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Honda Insight 2003

  • Cost:

    $19,080/$21,280 (MT/CVT)

MT: manual transmission

CVT: continuously variable transmission


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Honda Insight 2003

IMA: integrated motor assist system


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Honda Civic Hybrid 2003

Cost: $19,550/$20,550 (MT/CVT)


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Honda Civic Hybrid 2003


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Toyota Prius 2003

Cost: $20,480 CVT


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Toyota Prius 2003


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A note about Ford

  • I believe Ford is behind in the Hybrid world.

  • The Hybrid Escape is due at the end of 2003 with 40/29 mpg as compared to 19/25 mpg.

  • The Explorer: 239 HP, 4422 lbs., gets 17/21 mpg, and has a 22.5 gallon tank.


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Tepper Fleet Consumption

  • 33.3 t/yr. CO2

  • Could be reduced to less than half if all cars were hybrids.

www.fueleconomy.gov


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Cars to come

  • GM: Chevy Pickup 2004, Chevy Suburban 2004.

  • Daimler-Chrysler: Dodge Ram Pickup 2005, Mercedes S-Class 2006.


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