Happy Orcas

Happy Orcas PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Dead Orcas. State of Southern Resident Orcas. Almost 20% orcas died between 1995 and 2000.Reproductive females have not produced young in ten years.Only four adult males in the entire community of 80 whales.. Puget Sound Orcas and PCBs. Highest levels of PCBs in blubber of any marine mammal in the worldAverage almost 150 ppm<10 ppm PCB is known to cause immune problems in sealsDead female transient orca on Dungeness Spit in May 2002 1000 ppm PCB12ppm- EPA's standard for marine sediments.

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Happy Orcas

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1. Happy Orcas

2. Dead Orcas

3. State of Southern Resident Orcas Almost 20% orcas died between 1995 and 2000. Reproductive females have not produced young in ten years. Only four adult males in the entire community of 80 whales.

4. Puget Sound Orcas and PCBs Highest levels of PCBs in blubber of any marine mammal in the world Average almost 150 ppm <10 ppm PCB is known to cause immune problems in seals Dead female transient orca on Dungeness Spit in May 2002 1000 ppm PCB 12ppm- EPA’s standard for marine sediments

5. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

6. PCBs Highly stable oily fluids and solids Transformers, pesticides, etc Fat soluble Reside in fatty tissue Block hormone activity Destroy normal immune function Cause liver cancer, pituitary tumors, leukemia, and lymphoma Banned in U.S. since 1977

7. Ecosystem Review Ecosystem Organisms interacting with environment and each other through a food chain Food Chain Biomass moves from one organism to another as each eats a lower member and, in turn, is eaten by a higher member

8. Generalized Ecological Pyramid

9. Idealized Puget Sound Ecological Pyramid

10. Pollutants Pollutant Adversely affects the health, survival, or activities of living organisms Persistent Organic Pollutant POP Stable, Long Lasting Includes DDT and PCBs

11. Sources of Pollutants in the Environment Point Source Specific location of concentrated pollutants Factory waste Sewage Nonpoint Source Scattered or diffuse sources of pollutants Golf courses Agriculture

12. Factors Influencing Impact of Pollutants Solubility Water soluble pollutants Move easily through environment Fat soluble pollutants Need a carrier Long-lasting in body’s fatty tissue Persistence More stable Longer to break down More harm it can do

13. Pollutants in the Food Chain Bioaccumulation Cells increase the concentrations of molecules relative to the environment Biomagnification Concentration of pollutants increases as they move up the ecological pyramid Only 10% of biomass, but most of the pollutant is transferred

14. DDT in a Long Island Estuary (from Woodwell, Wurster and Isaccson, 1967)

15. Idealized Puget Sound Ecological Pyramid With PCBs

16. The ‘Double Whammy’ In blubber, PCBs are not very harmful. Low salmon runs force orcas to metabolize more blubber to survive. The blubber releases PCBs into the blood, destroying the immune system. Therefore, starvation increases the lethality of the pollutant.

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