FUNDAMENTAL OF ION EXCHANGE. WATER SOFTENING. HARD WATER. Water containing calcium (Ca+2) and magnesium (Mg+2), the hardness minerals. HARDNESS can be: Calcium hardness Magnesium hardness Total hardness. MEASURMENT OF HARDNESS. Milligrams per liter (mg/L) Parts per million (ppm)
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HARDNESS can be:
1 mg/L = 1 ppm
1 gpg = 17.1 ppm = 17.1 mg/L
Soft Less than 1.0 gpg
Slightly Hard 1.0 to 3.5 gpg
Moderately Hard 3.5 to 7.0 gpg
Hard 7.0 to 10.5 gpg
Very Hard 10.5 gpg and above
Ions are not destroyed or changed chemically;
they are simply replaced on the resin bead.
This process is known as ion exchange.
If no new chemical reaction is set, the incoming Ca+2 and Mg+2 ions flow untouched through the unit because there is no room for them on the resin beads.
2RNa+ + Ca+2 RCa+2 + 2Na+
2RNa+ + Mg+2 RMg+2 + 2Na+
The reverse reaction is give as:
2RNa+ + Ca+2 RCa+2 + 2Na+ High Sodium
2RNa+ + Mg+2 RMg+2 + 2Na+ High Sodium
NOTE: R represents the resin macro-molecule.
In practice softeners can be
During the service cycle, the raw water
SERVICE FLOW RATE
PRESSURE DROP THROUGH THE VESSEL
In Backwash, the raw water
Recommended flow rate is 0.25 to 0.9 gpm/ft3.
Slow rinse is a continuation of the brine cycle after the the brine valve has closed, fresh water continues to flow through the eductor even though it is not allowed to draw brine.
Benefits of using water softener: