Museums and Their Functions: Lecture 02. Brief History of Natural History Museums (Part I). Introduction.
Brief History of Natural History Museums (Part I)
A world view is an implicit (rational) manner by which a society perceives its surroundings and functions within its surroundings.
Museum development is divided into six phases corresponding to shifts in world view.
Episteme is a world view.
Palazzo Medici, Florence c. 1440 (first European museum). It contained treasures of precious metals and stones, and classical artifacts and reproduction of classical artifacts (sculpture, manuscripts, and coins). (From Hooper-Greenhill, 1992).
Kunstkammer of Frans Franken the Younger (early 17th century). Paintings, figurines, shells, dried fishes, and other natural and human productions were brought together to represent the world. (From Hooper-Greenhill, 1992).
Antiquarium of Wittelsbach, Munich, 1568. Sculpture arranged in scheme of allegory and symbol. Typical of displays to support social status. (From Hooper-Greenhill, 1992).Antiquarium of Wittelsbach, Munich, 1568.
Memory techniques are a form of language constructed of images and spaces to expressideas.
A. Woodcut of a fox. From Gesner’s Historia Animalium (1551). B. Woodcut of fox emblem. From Alciati’s Emblematum libellus (1534). [Translation: What a fine head this is but it has no brain.] From Ashworth 1996.
Emblem of a fox and badger. From Camerarius (1595). [Translation: What you want another has.] From Ashworth 1996.
Epithets are adjectives, nouns, or phrases used to characterize a person or thing.
Aldrovandi. Dragon of 1572.
Museum of Francesco Calzolari (Verona, 1622). in scheme ofMuseum of Francesco Calzolari (Verona, 1622).
(Museum of Olaus Worm, Leiden, 1655). From Whitaker 1996.
Museum of Ferrante Imperato (Venice, 1672).
Museum of Ferdinando Cespi, (Bologna, 1677). Cespi stressed the sensational.
Roman College Museum, (Rome 1678). Under Athanasius Kircher (1602-1680) study of languages was joined with the study of natural history.
Ashworth,W.B., Jr. 1996. Emblematic natural history of the Renaissance. pp. 17-37. In: Cultures of Natural History (eds.) N. Jardine, J.A. Secord, and E/C/ Spary. Cambridge Univ. Press, New York.
Hooper-Greenhill, E. 1992. Museums and the shaping of knowledge. Routledge, New York.
Whitehead, P.J.P. 1970. Museums in the history of zoology. Mus. J.
Whitaker, K. 1996. The culture of curiosity. pp. 75-90. In: Cultures of Natural History (eds.) N. Jardine, J.A. Secord, and E/C/ Spary. Cambridge Univ. Press, New York.