Christian university education and scholarship
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Modern Idol: Rational objectivism

In articulating the task of Christian scholarship in this way we stand against two very different idols of the mind that have had great influence. The first is rational objectivism: in this view, the academic enterprise can be religiously neutral.


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All academic work shaped by foundational beliefs

While some modernist scholars might once have looked upon all pre-theoretical commitment in academic work as something which compromised scientific integrity, the Christian scholar recognizes (with the postmodernist) that no academic enquiry can begin without presuppositions, that all theoretical work is shaped by foundational beliefs.


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Postmodern Idol: Relativism

The second of these idols is radical relativism: in this view, since perspectives on reality have been shaped largely by personal experience and by the arbitrary influences of one’s own history, society and culture, all points of view are alike subjective, and objective knowledge of reality is an impossibility.


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Knowledge shaped by religious impulse

Agreement: For ourselves, while we do affirm the insight that human knowledge is always shaped to some degree by human subjectivity, we differ from the radically relativist point of view in two important respects.

Disagreement: In the first place, the subjectivity that informs scholarship is, at its deepest level, religious in nature. That is, the paradigms and worldviews that mould theoretical work have not merely evolved to maturity under historical, social and cultural influences. Paradigms and worldviews are the products of that fundamental and directing power—the religious impulse—which lives at the very heart of humankind. Religion is not merely one more element of human subjectivity standing alongside all the others: it is what shapes and moves them all.


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Order in creation can be known!

Secondly, we reject the relativism that can arise from paying inordinate attention to the subjective elements in human knowledge and knowing. We believe that there is a given order of creation which can be known, and that we are called in our scholarly work to give a faithful account of what we can perceive of that order. Though our knowing never occurs in a vacuum, and though our knowledge is always partial and imperfect, genuine insight into the order of what has been made can be achieved.


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Rejection of two approaches: Biblicism and Dualism

Among Christian academics too there are models of scholarship from which we distinguish our own approach. The first is a kind of dualism that sees Christian belief as applicable only to the realm of theology, and keeps biblical teaching completely separate from theoretical work in other disciplines. In another approach, often termed biblicism, isolated texts of Scripture are brought to bear on specific issues of research and theorizing in the disciplines, but without a proper recognition of the considerable differences in purpose and kind of language which distinguish Scripture from scholarship.


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Inner Connection between Scripture and Scholarship

A distinctive element of Christian scholarship is its deliberate attention to the inner connection between Scripture and scholarly inquiry, that is, the normative bearing of Scripture on the making of theory. We see it as our responsibility to apply the biblical story and a biblical worldview to the basic religious, ideological, and philosophical assumptions that form the foundations of all academic work. . . .

The crucial insight we wish to guard is that there must be an inner connection between the Gospel and scholarship.


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Critiquing and Acknowledging and ?

. . . since faith will always shape scholarship, we strive to bring Scripture’s teaching to bear in a formative way on theoretical work, (1) critiquing foundational assumptions that are idolatrous while (2) acknowledging legitimate insight into the creation, and (3) relocating such insight within a Christian framework of thought. In all these ways—by positioning ourselves against the ideologies of the age, by affirming the genuine insights of non-Christian scholarship and by working in faith toward the goal of integrally Christian scholarship—we seek to witness to the victory of Christ on the cross, by which we can be set free from idolatry and enabled to live more and more in the new world of the kingdom of God.


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Critiquing and Acknowledging and ?

In all these ways—(1)by positioning ourselves against the ideologies of the age, (2) by affirming the genuine insights of non-Christian scholarship and (3) by working in faith toward the goal of integrally Christian scholarship—we seek to witness to the victory of Christ on the cross, by which we can be set free from idolatry and enabled to live more and more in the new world of the kingdom of God.


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Use of Scripture

Scripture is useful in scholarship not only to shape a Biblical worldview, but also to provide norms and themes that offer more direct guidance and instruction for our theoretical work.


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Examples

Thus a Christian psychologist might critique behaviourism for its reductionism and determinism, suggesting instead a Christian view of the human person which honours the rich complexity of human functioning and gives due respect to biblical teachings regarding personal responsibility. A Christian sociologist might challenge the cultural relativism which shapes most theoretical paradigms in sociology, and argue that normative social structures are not merely arbitrary in their construction but in fact reflect God’s constant and abiding creation order for social life.


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Examples (cont’d)

The Christian student of politics would recognize the distorting influences of various ideologies working within the political realm, while acknowledging the genuine insights they carry with them. A Christian professor of English might encourage the enjoyment of Romantic literature for its celebration of the imagination and of the richness of the world that God has created, while critiquing its individualism and its idolatrous elevation of imagination almost to the place of divine revelation. A Christian scientist would acknowledge the tension between a naturalistic explanation of origins and the biblical concept of creation, and in investigating the natural world would recognize in all its phenomena the handiwork of the God who made all things and sustains them by his word.


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Questions to ask of non-Christian scholarship

  • What is creational insight?

  • How has that insight been twisted by idolatrous theories?


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Colossians 2.6-8

So then, just as you received Christ Jesus as Lord, continue to live in him, rooted and built up in him, strengthened in the faith as you were taught, and overflowing with thankfulness. See to it that no one takes you captive through the hollow and deceptive philosophy, which depends on human tradition and the basic principles of this world rather than on Christ.


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Ideas have legs (Wolters)

Ideas have legs in the sense that they are not the disembodied abstractions of some ivory-tower academic, but are real spiritual forces that go somewhere, that are on the march in somebody’s army, and that have a widespread effect on our practical, everyday lives.


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John Keynes

The ideas of economists and political philosophers, both when they are right and when they are wrong, are more powerful than is commonly understood. Indeed, the world is ruled by little else. Practical men, who believe themselves to be quite exempt, from any intellectual influences, are usually the slaves of some defunct economist. Madmen in authority, who hear voices in the air, are ditilling their frenzy from some academic scribbler of a few years back. I am sure that the power of vested interests is vastly exaggerated compared with the gradual encroachment of ideas.


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Power of ideas

My point is that in such seemingly innocent-looking words and phrases a whole idolatrous perspective on the world, a whole distorted mind-set and humanistic thought-pattern is subliminally propagated in our civilization (Wolters).


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Laissez-faire economics (Walsh and Middleton)

  • Neo-classical theory: Laissez-faire Market is machine; let it function freely

  • Implications:

    • unemployment

    • health care

    • poverty for many

    • environment


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Keynesian response

  • Keynsian interventionists Market needs government intervention/maintenance

  • Implications:

    • debt grows larger

    • totalitarian

    • produces welfare state


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Behaviourism in Psychology (Walsh and Middleton)

  • Behaviourism: humans are complex machines; behave in predictable ways

    Stimulation  Behavioural response  Reinforcement


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Only a theory?

  • Shapes policy of mental health hospitals

  • Shapes educational theory

  • Shapes advertising policy

  • Shapes business management


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