ANSC 420: Critical thinking in Animal Science Susan Schoenian Sheep and Goat Specialist Western Maryland Research & Education Center University of Maryland Cooperative Extension www.sheepandgoat.com – [email protected]
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Critical thinking is the process of evaluating what other people say or write to determine whether to believe their statements.
Critical thinkers gather information from all senses, verbal and/or written expressions, reflection, observation, experience, and reasoning.
. . .to form a solid judgment that reconciles scientific evidence with common sense.
Ruminant and/or written expressions, reflection, observation, experience, and reasoning.
Even-toed hoofed animal
4 compartment stomach
Bovidae (hollow horns) family
Caprinea sub family
Ovis aries (54 chromosomes)
Capra hircus (60 chromosomes
sheep, goat, cervids (deer)Small ruminants
Multi-purpose animals and/or written expressions, reflection, observation, experience, and reasoning.
Research and biomedical
Youth projects (4-H, FFA)
PetsSheep and goats
More similarities than differences. and/or written expressions, reflection, observation, experience, and reasoning.
Same problems, same opportunities
Mostly the same diseases and health issues.Sheep vs. goats
Some large farms and/or written expressions, reflection, observation, experience, and reasoning.
Largest farm has 1,600 sheep for bleeding
Only 4 certified dairy goat farms; no sheep dairies
A lot of small fiber flocks
Mostly small farms
Average flock size is less than 30
A lot of niche marketing of lamb and wool products.
Some commercial production
Mostly hobby, 4-H, tax advantageSheep and goats in Maryland
2002 Ag Census: 22,702 sheep (655 farms) and 9,601 goats (702 farms)
An animal or plant that lives in or on a host (another animal or plant) and obtains nourishment from the host without benefiting or killing the host.
An organism which lives in an animal and derives its nutriment from the host animal oftencausing death or damage to the host. This term is usually reserved for worms.
Primary health problem affecting small ruminants in warm, moist climates like Maryland.
Sheep are goats are more susceptible to the effects of internal parasites than most other livestock.Internal parasites (worms)
Close grazing moist climates like Maryland.
Goats forced to graze
Small fecal pellets
Graze close to feces and each other.
Slower to develop immunity
Incomplete immunity (goats)
Temporary relaxing of immunity at lambing/kidding.
Lack of veterinary expertise
Lack of FDA-approved drugs
Worms have become resistant to most dewormers (drugs).
Main parasite is a blood sucker and killer!Why more susceptible?
Many veterinarians will not work with farm livestock. moist climates like Maryland.
Many veterinarians lack technical and/or practical knowledge of sheep and goat health issues.
The cost of treating a sheep or goat often exceeds its value.
There is often a disconnect between veterinarians and producers.
Most sheep and goat producers learn to do their own veterinary work.
They are often in violation of extra-label drug laws (they have no choice!).Lack of veterinary expertise
Three families (chemistries) of anthelmintics. moist climates like Maryland.
1-2 drugs in each family are FDA-approved for use in sheep.
Ivermectin ® and Cydectin ®
Only two drugs are FDA-approved for use in goats.
U.S. Organic standards do not permit deworming of meat animals.
There is growing public scrutiny regarding the use of drugs in food animal production.
Therapeutic Medical useLack of FDA-approved drugs
The FAMACHA© system
Tapeworms moist climates like Maryland.
Tend to be non-pathogenic
No beneficial effect of treatment
Difficult to diagnose
Not thought to be a problem in Maryland
Parasite of the white tail deer (sheep and goats are abnormal hosts)
Requires intermediate host (snail, slug)
Causes neurological damage.The “other” parasitesThese parasites tend to cause less problems than the others
Single-cell protozoa moist climates like Maryland.
Permanently damages lining of the small intestines.CoccidiaEimeria sp.
2 to 3 weeksoxygen, moisture, warmth
Affects mostly young lambs and kids, 1 to 6 months of age. moist climates like Maryland.
Diarrhea is the most common symptom. It often contains blood or mucous.
Other symptoms: loss of appetite, rough hair coat, poor growth, ill thrift, loss of body condition, dehydration.
Fecal egg flotation*Diagnosing coccidia
* Not FDA-approved for goats
Some level of “infection” is normal. moist climates like Maryland.
Most fecal tests will be “positive” for coccidia eggs.
Young animals require low level of exposure to develop immunity.
Prevention starts with good sanitation and management.
Feed and water that is free from fecal matter
Avoid overstockingPrevention of coccidiosis
1 FDA-approved for goats2 FDA-approved for sheep
Reduce coccidia in the environment moist climates like Maryland.
Start 30 days before lambing/kidding
Continue through weaning
Include in lamb and kid rations
Have many other beneficial effects
Feed efficiency, rate-of-gain, aid in prevention of toxoplasmosis and bloat
Can be toxic to equinesCoccidiostatsInhibit growth but do not kill coccidia
Rough hair coat
Is difficult to control because . .
Weight loss, unthrifty
Eggs require warmth (60°F) and humidity to hatch to first stage larvae.
Goal is not to create parasite-free animals. It is normal for sheep and goats to have parasites. Goal is to prevent clinical disease and production losses.
The primary cause of internal parasitism is overstocking.
What is a safe pasture?
Cleaner, safer pastures are a more realistic goal for most producers.
Forage Chicory moist climates like Maryland.
Chicory, birdsfoot trefoil, and Sericea Lespedeza have been shown to reduce fecal egg counts and/or larval development.
Moderately heritable – 20-40 percent
Sheep moist climates like Maryland.
Gulf Coast Native
Royal White (?)
Select populations of other breeds(?)
Traditional wooled breeds
Angora goats“Resistant” BreedsSome sheep and goat breeds are more resistant to worms.
2004, Vanimisetti, Andrew, Zazac, Notter
Selection for parasite resistance is possible and will not adversely affect growth of lambs and fertility of ewes.
What is refugia?
You do not have to deworm every animal.
How We Select for moist climates like Maryland.
Treatment RecommendationsDeworm adults at scores 4 and 5*Treat lambs and kids at categories 3, 4, and 5
*South Africa recommends goats be treated at categories 3, 4, and 5
1.2% moist climates like Maryland.
26.2%Using the FAMACHA© system to control internal parasites in grazing lambs
% Lambs/No. times treated
Western Maryland Research & Education Center, Keedysville, MD
Sanitation moist climates like Maryland.
Pasture and grazing management
Equipment and facilities
Feeding and nutrition