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บทที่ 3. การกำหนดรายได้ประชาชาติในระบบเศรษฐกิจ. ทฤษฎีการกำหนดรายได้ประชาชาติ. อธิบาย ความสัมพันธ์ระหว่างระดับรายได้ประชาชาติดุลยภาพและความต้องการใช้จ่ายมวลรวม (Desired Aggregate Expenditure: DAE).

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บทที่ 3

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3

3


3

(Desired Aggregate Expenditure: DAE)

(DAE)


3

  • (Desired Consumption Expenditure: C)

  • (Desired Investment: I)

  • (Desired Government Expenditure: G)

  • (Desired Net Export: X-M)


3

  • Keynes (Direct determinants) (Indirect determinants)


3

Consumption: C

C

Ca

0

Disposable Income: Yd

C = Ca + bYd


3

(Average Propensity to Consume: APC)

(Marginal Propensity to Consume: MPC) 1


3

(Average Propensity to Save: APS)

(Marginal Propensity to Save: MPS) 1


Keynes

Keynes

  • Ca 0

  • b 1 Marginal Propensity to Consume: MPC b = MPC 0 b 1


Keynes1

Keynes

  • MPC MPC MPC MPC

  • MPC + MPS = 1


Keynes2

Keynes

  • APC + APS =1 APC

  • Yd APS APC

  • Yd MPC APC


Mpc apc

C

MPC

APC

C

C

C2

C

B

C1

C

A

C

Y

Ca

Ca

Yd

0

0

Yd

Y2

Y1

APC1 = C1Y1/oY1- - - slope oC1

APC2= C2Y2/oY2- - - slope oC2

MPC = slope = C/Yd

MPC

APC1 APC2

MPC APC


3

Aggregate Expenditure = Yd

C = Yd

Consumption

Break-Even Point

b

C = Ca + bYd

c

a

APC < 1

APC = 1

d

APC 1

f

Ca

Yd

Yd1

Yd3

Yd2

Saving

S = - Ca + (1-b)Yd

b

APS 0

d

a

Yd

c

APS 0

Sa= -Ca

APS = 0

f

(dissaving)


Desired investment expenditure i

(Desired Investment Expenditure: I)


3


3


3

I

Ia

0

Y

  • (Autonomous Investment: Ia)


3

I

Ii = iY

Y

0

I

Ii = iY

Y

0

(2)

(Induced Investment: Ii)


3

(Government Expenditure)


3

    • () ()


3

G

G 1

G 0

G 2

0

Y


3

(Export and Import)


Export

(Export)


Export1

X

X1

X0

X2

0

Y

(Export)


Import

(Import)


Import1

M

M = Ma +mY

M

Y

Ma

0

Y

(Import)


Net exports

M, X

M = Ma +mY

Xn< 0

Xn = 0

X = Xa

Xn 0

Y

0

Y0

(Net Exports)

(X-M): Xn


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