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JMP Methodology and reconciling national and international monitoring of the MDG drinking water and sanitation target SADC/ECA Workshop By: Rolf Luyendijk, UNICEF Kampala, Uganda, 5-8 May, 2008. WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP). This presentation.

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who unicef joint monitoring programme for water supply and sanitation jmp

JMP Methodology and reconciling national and international monitoring of the MDG drinking water and sanitation target

SADC/ECA Workshop

By: Rolf Luyendijk, UNICEF

Kampala, Uganda, 5-8 May, 2008

WHO/UNICEFJoint Monitoring Programmefor Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP)

this presentation
This presentation
  • Introduction
  • Data sources
  • JMP Methodology
  • Reconciling national and international monitoring
who unicef joint monitoring program jmp
WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program (JMP)
  • Responsible for monitoring progress towards the MDG 7 Target 7C
    • Global accountability and advocacy
  • Biennial updates of coverage estimates
    • Water supply, sanitation, urban, rural, total, household connections, by country, region and global
mdg target indicators
MDG target + Indicators

MDG 7 Target 7C:

  • Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation

Indicators:

  • Proportion of population that uses an improved drinking water source, urban and rural
  • Proportion of population that uses an improved sanitation facility, urban and rural
mdg definitions of improved unimproved sources of drinking water and sanitation facilities
MDG definitions of improved/unimproved sources of drinking water and sanitation facilities
  • Improved water supply
  • Piped into dwelling, plot or yard
  • Public tap/standpipe
  • Tube well/borehole
  • Protected dug well
  • Protected spring
  • Rainwater collection
  • Improved sanitation
  • Flush/pour flush to:
    • piped sewer system
    • septic tank
    • pit latrine
  • Ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine
  • Pit latrine with slab
  • Composting toilet
  • Unimproved water supply
  • Unprotected dug well
  • Unprotected spring
  • Cart with small tank/drum
  • Tanker truck
  • Surface water (river, dam, lake, pond, stream, canal, irrigation canal)
  • Bottled water
  • Unimproved sanitation
  • Flush/Pour flush to elsewhere
  • Pit latrine without slab/open pit
  • bucket
  • Hanging toilet/hanging latrine
  • No facilities, bush or field
slide6

0% - 50%

50% - 75%

76% - 90%

91% - 100%

No or insufficient data

Water: Urban and rural disparities 2006

84% without access live in rural areas

Rural

Urban

WHO/UNICEF JMP, 2008

sanitation ladder
Sanitation ladder

Open

Defecation

Unimproved

Shared

Improved

1990 2006

slide9
Introduction
  • Data sources
  • JMP Methodology
  • Rationale for monitoring
data sources on access to water supply and sanitation
Data sources on access to water supply and sanitation
  • 1980 – 1997 Reported data from Governments
  • 1997 – data from household surveys and censuses
  • JMP data sources are primary sources:
    • National household sample surveys (DHS, MICS, LSMS, CWIQ, WHS, HBS, H&N, RHS, PAPFAM etc)
    • National census
    • Note: JMP is not involved in primary data collection
jmp data base 2007
JMP – data base (2007)
  • Data for +/- 170 countries
  • 600+ results of HH surveys + Censuses from 1985 – 2006
  • Bulk of surveys for LDCs, SSA, larger developing countries
  • 30 - 40 new survey results per year
  • Frequency for most developing countries one survey every three years
how does the jmp obtain data
How does the JMP obtain data?
  • UNICEF Country offices – annual submission of new survey/census data to HQ
  • MICS/DHS/WHS - through UNICEF, ORC-MACRO and WHO
  • IHSN – International Household Survey Network
  • Web-searches from NSO websites
  • Direct contact with NSO’s
survey validation
Survey validation
  • Do we know the survey and survey authorities?
  • Is the survey nationally representative?
  • Do we have the original source documentation?
  • Reliability check against other indicators
slide16
Introduction
  • Data sources
  • JMP Methodology
  • Reconciling national and international monitoring
monitoring mdg drinking water and sanitation targets
Monitoring MDG drinking water and sanitation targets
  • A country’s responsibility
  • At global level: JMP
  • Challenges:
    • Track progress over time
    • Track progress towards the MDG target vs.

baseline year 1990

    • Ensure comparability over time
    • Ensure comparability of data among

countries (JMP specific challenge)

jmp methodology
JMP methodology
  • Collection survey information
  • Validate survey information
  • Ensure comparability among different surveys (including some country level consultations)
  • Plot survey data on time scale (urban + rural)
  • Draw linear regression line
  • Calculate total coverage based on urban & rural coverage data
adjustments made to survey or census data set 1
Adjustments made to survey or census data set (1)

Example:

  • HBS ‘86: Latrine: 58% Improved
  • DHS ‘89: Pit: 62% Improved ?
  • Census ‘92: Open pit: 59% Not improved
  • MICS ‘95: Traditional latrine: 60% Improved?
  • How to interpret these categories?
  • Suggested re-classification:
    • Pit latrine with a slab
    • Pit latrine without a slab/open pit
adjustments made to survey or census data set 2
Adjustments made to survey or census data set (2)

Example:

  • DHS ‘98: Well: 22% Improved?
  • Census ‘00: Protected dug well: 14% Improved
  • Census ’00: Unprotected dug well: 6% Not Improved

Did coverage drop by 22 -14 = 8% over the period 1990-2000?

  • Suggested re-classification:
    • Tube well/borehole
    • Protected well
    • Unprotected well
slide22

Estimates Coverage

2004 = 50%

Latest data point DHS 2002 :51%

slide23

Estimates Coverage

2004 = 50% = 54%

2006 = 57%

Added Fictive data point 2005 :58%

slide24

Estimated Coverage

2004 estimate = 50%

Latest data point DHS 2002 :51%

slide25

2004 = 50% = 54%

2006 = 57%

Estimated Coverage

2004 = 50% = 49%

2006 = 52%

Added Fictive data point 2005 :58%

Added Fictive data point 2005 :49%

jmp methodology1
JMP Methodology
  • Per country:
    • Trendlines for urban and rural sanitation coverage
    • Trendlines for urban and rural drinking water coverage
  • Population data from UN Population Division
    • Total population
    • proportion urban population
  • Calculate total national coverage
    • Note: JMP does not take total coverage data directly from surveys or census data
slide27
Introduction
  • Data sources
  • JMP Methodology
  • Reconciling national and international monitoring
data discrepancies
Data discrepancies
  • Use of different definitions of access
  • Use of different population data
  • JMP always uses projections – countries often report on latest census or survey findings
  • Difference in denominator population vs. households
questions
Questions

How to reconcile definitional issues between national and international monitoring?

    • Should international definitions take into account (some) national definitions? E.g. shared facilities, traditional latrines?
    • Should national data (and definitions) be published alongside international estimates?
    • At what point should line ministries get involved in the discussion on definitions and what if they propose additional access criteria?
  • How to ensure survey data compatibility for national and international monitoring?
  • Reporting of latest survey data or use of projections?
  • How to ensure international monitoring uses all available survey data?
jmp methodology summary
JMP Methodology - Summary
  • Primarily based on user data derived from household surveys and censuses rather thandata reported by governments
  • Adjustments made to full historical series to ensure comparability over time and between countries
  • Use linear regression to extrapolate and interpolate reference years instead of using the latest household survey data
jmp website www wssinfo org
JMP Website: www.wssinfo.org
  • JMP country files
    • Four graphs with regressions line
    • All HHS + census data per country
  • Regional and global coverage estimates
  • Core questions on water supply and sanitation for household surveys
    • Standard indicators
    • Definitions of service categories
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