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JMP Methodology and reconciling national and international monitoring of the MDG drinking water and sanitation target SADC/ECA Workshop By: Rolf Luyendijk, UNICEF Kampala, Uganda, 5-8 May, 2008. WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP). This presentation.

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Who unicef joint monitoring programme for water supply and sanitation jmp

JMP Methodology and reconciling national and international monitoring of the MDG drinking water and sanitation target

SADC/ECA Workshop

By: Rolf Luyendijk, UNICEF

Kampala, Uganda, 5-8 May, 2008

WHO/UNICEFJoint Monitoring Programmefor Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP)


This presentation

This presentation

  • Introduction

  • Data sources

  • JMP Methodology

  • Reconciling national and international monitoring


Who unicef joint monitoring program jmp

WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program (JMP)

  • Responsible for monitoring progress towards the MDG 7 Target 7C

    • Global accountability and advocacy

  • Biennial updates of coverage estimates

    • Water supply, sanitation, urban, rural, total, household connections, by country, region and global


Mdg target indicators

MDG target + Indicators

MDG 7 Target 7C:

  • Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation

    Indicators:

  • Proportion of population that uses an improved drinking water source, urban and rural

  • Proportion of population that uses an improved sanitation facility, urban and rural


Mdg definitions of improved unimproved sources of drinking water and sanitation facilities

MDG definitions of improved/unimproved sources of drinking water and sanitation facilities

  • Improved water supply

  • Piped into dwelling, plot or yard

  • Public tap/standpipe

  • Tube well/borehole

  • Protected dug well

  • Protected spring

  • Rainwater collection

  • Improved sanitation

  • Flush/pour flush to:

    • piped sewer system

    • septic tank

    • pit latrine

  • Ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine

  • Pit latrine with slab

  • Composting toilet

  • Unimproved water supply

  • Unprotected dug well

  • Unprotected spring

  • Cart with small tank/drum

  • Tanker truck

  • Surface water (river, dam, lake, pond, stream, canal, irrigation canal)

  • Bottled water

  • Unimproved sanitation

  • Flush/Pour flush to elsewhere

  • Pit latrine without slab/open pit

  • bucket

  • Hanging toilet/hanging latrine

  • No facilities, bush or field


Who unicef joint monitoring programme for water supply and sanitation jmp

0% - 50%

50% - 75%

76% - 90%

91% - 100%

No or insufficient data

Water: Urban and rural disparities 2006

84% without access live in rural areas

Rural

Urban

WHO/UNICEF JMP, 2008


Who unicef joint monitoring programme for water supply and sanitation jmp

Data reports and advocacy material


Sanitation ladder

Sanitation ladder

Open

Defecation

Unimproved

Shared

Improved

1990 2006


Who unicef joint monitoring programme for water supply and sanitation jmp

  • Introduction

  • Data sources

  • JMP Methodology

  • Rationale for monitoring


Data sources on access to water supply and sanitation

Data sources on access to water supply and sanitation

  • 1980 – 1997 Reported data from Governments

  • 1997 – data from household surveys and censuses

  • JMP data sources are primary sources:

    • National household sample surveys (DHS, MICS, LSMS, CWIQ, WHS, HBS, H&N, RHS, PAPFAM etc)

    • National census

    • Note: JMP is not involved in primary data collection


Jmp data base 2007

JMP – data base (2007)

  • Data for +/- 170 countries

  • 600+ results of HH surveys + Censuses from 1985 – 2006

  • Bulk of surveys for LDCs, SSA, larger developing countries

  • 30 - 40 new survey results per year

  • Frequency for most developing countries one survey every three years


How does the jmp obtain data

How does the JMP obtain data?

  • UNICEF Country offices – annual submission of new survey/census data to HQ

  • MICS/DHS/WHS - through UNICEF, ORC-MACRO and WHO

  • IHSN – International Household Survey Network

  • Web-searches from NSO websites

  • Direct contact with NSO’s


Survey validation

Survey validation

  • Do we know the survey and survey authorities?

  • Is the survey nationally representative?

  • Do we have the original source documentation?

  • Reliability check against other indicators


Who unicef joint monitoring programme for water supply and sanitation jmp

  • Introduction

  • Data sources

  • JMP Methodology

  • Reconciling national and international monitoring


Monitoring mdg drinking water and sanitation targets

Monitoring MDG drinking water and sanitation targets

  • A country’s responsibility

  • At global level: JMP

  • Challenges:

    • Track progress over time

    • Track progress towards the MDG target vs.

      baseline year 1990

    • Ensure comparability over time

    • Ensure comparability of data among

      countries (JMP specific challenge)


Jmp methodology

JMP methodology

  • Collection survey information

  • Validate survey information

  • Ensure comparability among different surveys (including some country level consultations)

  • Plot survey data on time scale (urban + rural)

  • Draw linear regression line

  • Calculate total coverage based on urban & rural coverage data


Adjustments made to survey or census data set 1

Adjustments made to survey or census data set (1)

Example:

  • HBS ‘86: Latrine: 58%Improved

  • DHS ‘89: Pit: 62% Improved ?

  • Census ‘92: Open pit: 59%Not improved

  • MICS ‘95: Traditional latrine: 60%Improved?

  • How to interpret these categories?

  • Suggested re-classification:

    • Pit latrine with a slab

    • Pit latrine without a slab/open pit


Adjustments made to survey or census data set 2

Adjustments made to survey or census data set (2)

Example:

  • DHS ‘98: Well: 22%Improved?

  • Census ‘00: Protected dug well: 14%Improved

  • Census ’00: Unprotected dug well: 6% Not Improved

    Did coverage drop by 22 -14 = 8% over the period 1990-2000?

  • Suggested re-classification:

    • Tube well/borehole

    • Protected well

    • Unprotected well


Who unicef joint monitoring programme for water supply and sanitation jmp

Latest data point DHS 2002 :51%


Who unicef joint monitoring programme for water supply and sanitation jmp

Estimates Coverage

2004 = 50%

Latest data point DHS 2002 :51%


Who unicef joint monitoring programme for water supply and sanitation jmp

Estimates Coverage

2004 = 50% = 54%

2006 = 57%

Added Fictive data point 2005 :58%


Who unicef joint monitoring programme for water supply and sanitation jmp

Estimated Coverage

2004 estimate = 50%

Latest data point DHS 2002 :51%


Who unicef joint monitoring programme for water supply and sanitation jmp

2004 = 50% = 54%

2006 = 57%

Estimated Coverage

2004 = 50% = 49%

2006 = 52%

Added Fictive data point 2005 :58%

Added Fictive data point 2005 :49%


Jmp methodology1

JMP Methodology

  • Per country:

    • Trendlines for urban and rural sanitation coverage

    • Trendlines for urban and rural drinking water coverage

  • Population data from UN Population Division

    • Total population

    • proportion urban population

  • Calculate total national coverage

    • Note: JMP does not take total coverage data directly from surveys or census data


Who unicef joint monitoring programme for water supply and sanitation jmp

  • Introduction

  • Data sources

  • JMP Methodology

  • Reconciling national and international monitoring


Data discrepancies

Data discrepancies

  • Use of different definitions of access

  • Use of different population data

  • JMP always uses projections – countries often report on latest census or survey findings

  • Difference in denominator population vs. households


Questions

Questions

How to reconcile definitional issues between national and international monitoring?

  • Should international definitions take into account (some) national definitions? E.g. shared facilities, traditional latrines?

  • Should national data (and definitions) be published alongside international estimates?

  • At what point should line ministries get involved in the discussion on definitions and what if they propose additional access criteria?

  • How to ensure survey data compatibility for national and international monitoring?

  • Reporting of latest survey data or use of projections?

  • How to ensure international monitoring uses all available survey data?


  • Jmp methodology summary

    JMP Methodology - Summary

    • Primarily based on user data derived from household surveys and censuses rather thandata reported by governments

    • Adjustments made to full historical series to ensure comparability over time and between countries

    • Use linear regression to extrapolate and interpolate reference years instead of using the latest household survey data


    Jmp website www wssinfo org

    JMP Website: www.wssinfo.org

    • JMP country files

      • Four graphs with regressions line

      • All HHS + census data per country

    • Regional and global coverage estimates

    • Core questions on water supply and sanitation for household surveys

      • Standard indicators

      • Definitions of service categories


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