chapter 48
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Chapter 48

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 47

Chapter 48 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 74 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 48. Reproduction. Asexual reproduction A single parent endows its offspring with genes identical to its own Energy efficient Most successful in a stable environment. Means of asexual reproduction Budding Part of the parent’s body grows and separates from the rest of the body

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Chapter 48' - paul-maldonado


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
chapter 48

Chapter 48

Reproduction

slide2
Asexual reproduction
    • A single parent endows its offspring with genes identical to its own
      • Energy efficient
      • Most successful in a stable environment
slide3
Means of asexual reproduction
    • Budding
      • Part of the parent’s body grows and separates from the rest of the body
    • Fragmentation
      • The parent’s body breaks into pieces
      • Each piece can grow into a new animal
    • Parthenogenesis
      • An unfertilized egg develops into an adult
slide5
Sexual reproduction
    • Offspring produced by fusion of two gametes
      • Ovum
      • Sperm
    • A fertilized egg (zygote) forms
    • Promotes genetic variety and is adaptive in an unstable environment
slide6
External fertilization
    • Mating partners typically release eggs into the water simultaneously
  • Internal fertilization
    • Male delivers sperm into the female’s body
  • Hermaphroditism
    • Single individual produces eggs and sperm
slide7
Human male reproductive system
    • Testes
      • Housed in the scrotum
      • Contain the seminiferous tubules, where sperm production takes place
      • Interstitial cells secrete testosterone
      • Sertoli cells produce signaling molecules and a fluid that nourishes sperm cells
slide8
Human male reproductive system, cont.
    • Sperm
      • Stored in the epididymis and vas deferens
      • During ejaculation, sperm pass from the vas deferens to the ejaculatory duct and into the urethra
slide9
Human male reproductive system, cont.
    • Penis
      • Three columns of erectile tissue
      • Two cavernous bodies
      • One spongy body that surrounds the urethra
    • Erectile tissue becomes engorged with blood and causes erection
slide11
Spermatogenesis
    • Takes place in the seminiferous tubules
    • Spermatogonia divide by mitosis
    • Head of a sperm consists of the nucleus and an acrosome, containing enzymes that help penetrate the egg
slide14
Sperm pass in sequence through
    • Seminiferous tubes of the testes
    • Epididymis
    • Vas deferens
    • Ejaculatory duct
    • Urethra
slide16
Endocrine regulation of reproduction in the human male
    • Testosterone establishes and maintains
      • Primary sex characteristics
      • Secondary sex characteristics
slide18
Endocrine regulation of reproduction

involves the

    • Hypothalamus
      • GnRH
    • Pituitary gland
      • FSH and LH
    • Testes
      • Testosterone
      • ABP and inhibin
slide21
Human female reproductive system
    • Ovaries
      • Produce gametes
      • Steroid hormones estrogen and progesterone
    • Fertilization takes place in the oviducts
slide23
Human female reproductive system, cont.
    • Uterus
      • Incubator for the embryo
      • Endometrium thickens each month
      • Cervix extends into the vagina
slide24
Human female reproductive system, cont.
    • Vagina
      • Lower part of the birth canal
      • Vulva includes the labia majora, labia minora, vestibule, clitoris, and mons pubis
slide26
Human female reproductive system, cont.
    • Breasts
      • Function in lactation
      • Prolactin stimulates milk production
      • Oxytocin stimulates milk ejection from the alveoli into the ducts
slide27
Development of a human ovum
    • Oogenesis takes places in the ovaries
    • Oogonia differentiate into primary oocytes
      • Primary oocyte and granulosa cells make up a follicle
slide29
Development of a human ovum, cont.
    • As the follicle grows
      • Connective tissue cells form a layer of theca cells
      • Primary oocyte undergoes meitosis, giving rise to a secondary oocyte and a polar body
slide31
Development of a human ovum, cont.
    • During ovulation
      • The secondary oocyte is ejected and enters an oviduct to be fertilized
      • The part of the remaining follicle develops into a corpus luteum
slide32
Endocrine regulation of reproduction
    • Preovulatory phase
      • GnRH stimulates the pituitary to secrete FSH and LH
      • Estrogen stimulates endometrium development
      • LH stimulates final maturation of the follicle and ovulation
slide33
Endocrine regulation of reproduction, cont.
    • Postovulatory phase
      • LH promotes development of the corpus luteum
      • The corpus luteum secretes progesterone and estrogen
      • If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum degenerates, hormone levels fall, and menstruation occurs
slide36
Physiological changes that occur during sexual response
    • Sexual excitement
    • Plateau
    • Orgasm
    • Resolution
slide37
Human fertilization
    • Fusion of secondary oocyte and sperm to form a zygote
    • Embryo implants in the uterus
    • hCG is the hormone that maintains the corpus luteum
    • Estrogen and progesterone
      • Secreted by corpus luteum (first trimester) and then by placenta
slide40
Human birth process
    • Several hormones, including estrogen, oxytocin, and prostaglandins regulate parturition
    • Labor
      • Divided into three stages
      • The baby is delivered during the second stage
slide41
Contraception
    • Hormonal methods, such as oral contraceptives
    • Intrauterine devices
    • Condoms and contraceptive diaphragms
    • Sterilization (vasectomy or tubal ligation)
slide43
Abortions
    • Spontaneous miscarriages occur without intervention
    • Induced abortions
      • Therapeutic performed to maintain the mother’s health, as birth control, or when the embryo is thought to be grossly abnormal
slide44
Common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
    • Chlamydia
    • Gonorrhea
    • Syphilis
    • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
    • Genital herpes
    • HIV
slide45
Endocrine regulation of reproduction

involves the

    • Hypothalamus
      • GnRH
    • Pituitary gland
      • FSH and LH
    • Testes
      • Testosterone
      • ABP and inhibin
ad