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SWPBS: Review, Updates, & Action Planning. George Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS Center for Behavioral Education & Research University of Connecticut July 6 2011 www.pbis.org www.scalingup.org www.cber.org. PURPOSE

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SWPBS: Review, Updates, & Action Planning

George Sugai

OSEP Center on PBIS

Center for Behavioral Education & Research

University of Connecticut

July 6 2011

www.pbis.orgwww.scalingup.orgwww.cber.org


PURPOSE

To review defining and essential features of school-wide approach to positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) and to develop action plan for next steps.

  • Keynote overview: All

  • Follow-up: Administrators, coordinators, coaches, trainers, evaluators

  • Coaching: Administrators, coordinators, coaches, trainers, evaluators

  • Updates & review

  • Self-assessments

  • Action planning


Introductions


2

SWPBS is about….


SWPBS Implementation “Infidelity”


Problem Statement

“We give schools strategies & systems for improving practice & outcomes, but implementation is not accurate, consistent, or durable, & desired outcomes aren’t realized. School personnel & teams need more thanexposure, practice, & enthusiasm.”


Brief PBIS History


Special Education & BD


“Abbreviated” SWPBS History


SWPBS Foundations


“Big Ideas” from Early Years


Guskey, 1986, p. 59


SWPBS Logic!

Successful individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or school climates that are effective, efficient, relevant, durable, scalable, & logical for all students

(Zins & Ponti, 1990)


17

SWPBS

Practices

School-wide

Classroom

  • Smallest #

  • Evidence-based

  • Biggest, durable effect

Family

Non-classroom

Student


18

School-wide

  • Leadership team

  • Behavior purpose statement

  • Set of positive expectations & behaviors

  • Procedures for teaching SW & classroom-wide expected behavior

  • Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior

  • Continuum of procedures for discouraging rule violations

  • Procedures for on-going data-based monitoring & evaluation


13 Basics


Basics


1. Invest in prevention


Redesign of teaching environments…not students


2. Teach, supervise, reinforce


DEFINE

Simply

ADJUST for

Efficiency

MONITOR &

ACKNOWLEDGE

Continuously

MODEL

PRACTICE

In Setting

57

Teaching Academics & Behaviors


2. NATURAL CONTEXT

1. SOCIAL SKILL

Expectations

3. BEHAVIOR EXAMPLES


1. SOCIAL SKILL

2. NATURAL CONTEXT

3. BEHAVIOR EXAMPLES


1. SOCIAL SKILL

2. NATURAL CONTEXT

Expectations

3. BEHAVIOR EXAMPLES


3. Emphasize implementation framework, not curriculum


SWPBS (aka PBIS/RtI) is

Framework


Team

GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: “Getting Started”

Agreements

Data-based

Action Plan

Evaluation

Implementation


4. Integrateoutcome, data, practices, & systems


Integrated

Elements

Supporting Social Competence &

Academic Achievement

OUTCOMES

15

Supporting

Decision

Making

Supporting

Staff Behavior

DATA

SYSTEMS

PRACTICES

Supporting

Student Behavior


5. Invest in multi-tiered prevention logic


Tertiary Prevention:

Specialized

Individualized

Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior

CONTINUUM OF

SCHOOL-WIDE

INSTRUCTIONAL &

POSITIVE BEHAVIOR

SUPPORT

FEW

~5%

Secondary Prevention:

Specialized Group

Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior

~15%

SOME

Primary Prevention:

School-/Classroom-

Wide Systems for

All Students,

Staff, & Settings

23

ALL

~80% of Students


23

Continuum of Support for ALL

Few

Some

All

Dec 7, 2007


Continuum of Support for ALL

“Theora”

Math

Science

Spanish

Reading

Soc skills

Soc Studies

Basketball

Label behavior…not people

Dec 7, 2007


Continuum of Support for ALL:

“Molcom”

Anger man.

Prob Sol.

Ind. play

Adult rel.

Self-assess

Attend.

Coop play

Peer interac

Label behavior…not people

Dec 7, 2007


6. Adopt doable implementation “blueprint” or approach


Implementation Levels

State

District

School

Classroom

Student


SWPBS Implementation Blueprint

www.pbis.org


7. Embed “Response-to-Intervention” logic & principles


RtI


  • Intensive, Individual Interventions

  • Individual Students

  • Assessment-based

  • High Intensity

  • Intensive, Individual Interventions

  • Individual Students

  • Assessment-based

  • Intense, durable procedures

  • Targeted Group Interventions

  • Some students (at-risk)

  • High efficiency

  • Rapid response

  • Targeted Group Interventions

  • Some students (at-risk)

  • High efficiency

  • Rapid response

  • Universal Interventions

  • All students

  • Preventive, proactive

  • Universal Interventions

  • All settings, all students

  • Preventive, proactive

Responsiveness to Intervention

Academic Systems

Behavioral Systems

1-5%

1-5%

5-10%

5-10%

80-90%

80-90%

Circa 1996


Responsiveness to Intervention


Continuum of Support for ALL

“IFB School”

Literacy

School Climate

Technology

Numeracy

Social Studies

Writing

Attendance

Specials

Science

Align supports

Dec 7, 2007


Continuum of Support for ALL

“District: Literacy”

Trek E.S.

Bianchi M.S.

Jamis E.S.

Masi H.S.

Serrota E.S.

Look M.S.

Look M.S.

Davidson M.S.

Specials

Science

Align supports

Dec 7, 2007


Student Behavior

Teacher Practice

CONTEXT

or

SETTING

Continua of Responsiveness & Support

District Operations

School Reform


8. Integrateliteracy & behaviorimplementation & supports


Academic-Behavior Connection

Algozzine, B., Wang, C., & Violette, A. S. (2011). Reexamining the relationship between academic achievement and social behavior. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 13, 3-16.

Burke, M. D., Hagan-Burke, S., & Sugai, G. (2003). The efficacy of function-based interventions for students with learning disabilities who exhibit escape-maintained problem behavior: Preliminary results from a single case study. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 26, 15-25.

McIntosh, K., Chard, D. J., Boland, J. B., & Horner, R. H. (2006). Demonstration of combined efforts in school-wide academic and behavioral systems and incidence of reading and behavior challenges in early elementary grades. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 8, 146-154.

McIntosh, K., Horner, R. H., Chard, D. J., Dickey, C. R., and Braun, D. H. (2008). Reading skills and function of problem behavior in typical school settings. Journal of Special Education, 42, 131-147.

Nelson, J. R., Johnson, A., & Marchand-Martella, N. (1996). Effects of direct instruction, cooperative learning, and independent learning practices on the classroom behavior of students with behavioral disorders: A comparative analysis. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, 53-62.

Wang, C., & Algozzine, B. (2011). Rethinking the relationship between reading and behavior in early elementary school. Journal of Educational Research, 104, 100-109.


“Viewed as outcomes, achievement and behavior are related; viewed as causes of each other, achievement and behavior are unrelated. In this context, teaching behavior as relentlessly as we teach reading or other academic content is the ultimate act of prevention, promise, and power underlying PBS and other preventive interventions in America’s schools.”

Algozzine, Wang, & Violette (2011), p. 16.


23

Behavior Continuum

Academic Continuum

RTI

Integrated Continuum

Mar 10 2010


9. Align professional development & support with implementation phase


Where are you in implementation process?Adapted from Fixsen & Blase, 2005


10. Implement evidence-based practice with fidelity


Start

w/

What Works

Focus on Fidelity

Detrich, Keyworth, & States (2007). J. Evid.-based Prac. in Sch.


RCT & Group Design PBIS Studies

  • Reduced major disciplinary infractions

  • Improvements in academic achievement

  • Enhanced perception of organizational health & safety

  • Improved school climate

  • Reductions in teacher reported bullying behavior

Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Thornton, L.A., & Leaf, P.J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), 100-115

Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Bevans, K.B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 462-473.

Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, 133-148.

Bradshaw, C.P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K.B., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, 1-26.

Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, 133-145.

Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), 1-14.


11. Work smarter by doing a few effective things very well


Sample Teaming Matrix

Are outcomes measurable?


17

SWPBS

Practices

School-wide

Classroom

  • Smallest #

  • Evidence-based

  • Biggest, durable effect

Family

Non-classroom

Student &

Family


ESTABLISHING CONTINUUM of SWPBS

  • TERTIARY PREVENTION

  • Function-based support

  • Wraparound

  • Person-centered planning

  • TERTIARY PREVENTION

~5%

~15%

  • SECONDARY PREVENTION

  • Check in/out

  • Targeted social skills instruction

  • Peer-based supports

  • Social skills club

  • SECONDARY PREVENTION

  • PRIMARY PREVENTION

  • Teach SW expectations

  • Proactive SW discipline

  • Positive reinforcement

  • Effective instruction

  • Parent engagement

  • PRIMARY PREVENTION

~80% of Students


12. Guide decisions with data


Data Decision Making


13. Consider Context & Culture


2011+ Basic Big Ideas


Implementation Example: Bullying Prevention


Bullying Program Component Review Purpose


Preliminary Conclusions


  • Victim attention

  • Bystander attention

  • Self-delivered praise

  • Tangible access


PREVENTION

De-emphasis on adding consequence for problem behavior


Target

Initiator

Context

or

Setting

Continuum of Behavior Fluency

Staff

Bystander


Four basic strategies….if you do nuthin’ else….


Doesn’t Work

Works

  • Label student

  • Exclude student

  • Blame family

  • Punish student

  • Assign restitution

  • Ask for apology

  • Teach targeted social skills

  • Reward social skills

  • Teach all

  • Individualize for non-responsive behavior

  • Invest in positive school-wide culture


  • MUST…..

  • Be easy & do-able by all

  • Be contextually relevant

  • Result in early disengagement

  • Increase predictability

  • Be pre-emptive

  • Be teachable

  • Be brief


www.pbis.org


1.88

.88

3.14

Baseline

Acquisition

Full BP-PBS Implementation

Rob

School 1

Number of Incidents of Bullying Behavior

Bruce

Cindy

School 2

Scott

Anne

School 3

Ken

72%

Scott Ross, University of Oregon

78

School Days


22% decrease

21% increase

Scott Ross, University of Oregon

79

BP-PBS, Scott Ross


Non-Classroom Management: Self-Assessment


18

School-wide

  • Leadership team

  • Behavior purpose statement

  • Set of positive expectations & behaviors

  • Procedures for teaching SW & classroom-wide expected behavior

  • Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior

  • Continuum of procedures for discouraging rule violations

  • Procedures for on-going data-based monitoring & evaluation


Classroom

  • All school-wide

  • Maximum structure & predictability in routines & environment

  • Positively stated expectations posted, taught, reviewed, prompted, & supervised.

  • Maximum engagement through high rates of opportunities to respond, delivery of evidence-based instructional curriculum & practices

  • Continuum of strategies to acknowledge displays of appropriate behavior, including contingent & specific praise, group contingencies, behavior contracts, token economies

  • Continuum of strategies for responding to inappropriate behavior, including specific, contingent, brief corrections for academic & social behavior errors, differential reinforcement of other behavior, planned ignoring, response cost, & timeout.


Essential Behavior & Classroom Management Practices

SeeClassroom Management Self-Checklist (7r)


Classroom Management: Self-Assessment


Non-classroom

  • Positive expectations & routines taught & encouraged

  • Active supervision by all staff

    • Scan, move, interact

  • Precorrections & reminders

  • Positive reinforcement


Non-Classroom Management: Self-Assessment


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