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Chapter 10. The Endocrine System. The Endocrine System. Endocrine System Characteristics. Each hormone acts only on specific cells (target cells) Only target cells have receptors for specific hormones Endocrine control slower than nervous system

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Chapter 10
Chapter 10

The Endocrine System



Endocrine system characteristics
Endocrine System Characteristics

  • Each hormone acts only on specific cells (target cells)

  • Only target cells have receptors for specific hormones

  • Endocrine control slower than nervous system

  • Endocrine and nervous systems complement each other


Endocrine functions hormones
Endocrine Functions: Hormones

  • Hormones:

    • Come from endocrine glands

    • Circulate in the blood stream

    • Act on specific cells in the body



Classification of Hormones: Steroid Hormones


Lipid soluble and water soluble hormones interact differently with target cells
Lipid-soluble and water-soluble hormones interact differently with target cells

  • Steroid Hormones:

    • Lipid soluble, chemically derived from cholesterol

    • Bind to receptorsinside target cells

    • Activate specific genes to produce specific proteins


How Steroid Hormones Act differently with target cells


Characteristics of non steroid hormones
Characteristics of Non-steroid Hormones differently with target cells

  • Nonsteroid hormones:

    • Water soluble

    • Bind to receptors on target cell membranes

    • Work through intermediate mechanisms (second messengers) to activate existing enzymes

    • Faster action than steroid hormones; time to action = seconds to minutes


How water-soluble differently with target cells

hormones act


Hormone receptors
Hormone Receptors differently with target cells

  • All hormones work through receptors

  • Target cells (and only target cells) for a hormone contain receptors for that hormone

  • Example: Estrogen Receptor Knockout (ERKO) mouse (and human)


In order for a hormone to work on a cell or tissue
In order for a hormone to work on a cell (or tissue): differently with target cells

  • Receptors are useful but not essential

  • Receptors for that hormone must be present


Feedback mechanisms regulate the secretion of hormones
Feedback mechanisms regulate the secretion of hormones differently with target cells

  • Refer to in-class worksheet


Hypothalamus and pituitary glands
Hypothalamus and Pituitary Glands differently with target cells

  • Hormones from the hypothalamus regulate the pituitary gland

  • Neurosecretory cells: part neuron; part endocrine organ

  • Pituitary hormones often prompt other glands to release hormones


The hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland
The Hypothalamus and Anterior Pituitary Gland differently with target cells

  • Anterior pituitary

    • Connection to hypothalamus: releasing (and inhibiting) hormones from hypothalamus travel to pituitary through pituitary portal vessels

    • No nerve connection to hypothalamus



True false
True/False Pituitary

Neurosecretory cells have characteristics of both hormone secreting cells and neurons



Hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary gland
Hypothalamus and the Posterior Pituitary Gland Pituitary

  • Posterior pituitary

    • Connection to hypothalamus: hormones made in hypothalamus, stored in posterior pituitary

    • Neurosecretory cells project to post. pit.


Hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary gland1
Hypothalamus and the Posterior Pituitary Gland Pituitary

  • Posterior pituitary Hormones (protein)

    • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH): conserves water in kidneys, regulates water balance in body

    • Regulated by:

      • High/Low water intake

      • Alcohol


Hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary gland2
Hypothalamus and the Posterior Pituitary Gland Pituitary

  • Posterior pituitary Hormones (protein)

    • Oxytocin induces:

      • Uterine contractions during labor

      • Milk ejection through neuroendocrine reflex

      • Behavioral Effects: Love/Trust/Bonding


Oxytocin Pituitary


Oxytocin
Oxytocin Pituitary

  • Human Sexual Response:

    • Oxytocin may have a role in sexual arousal, orgasm & sexual satiety/satisfaction

  • CNS: Penile erection, copulatory behavior

  • Trust/Love

    • Pair bonding

  • Maternal Behavior:

    • Oxytocin induces maternal behavior in female rats


Oxytocin Pituitary


Oxytocin and adh antidiuretic hormone
Oxytocin and ADH (antidiuretic hormone) Pituitary

  • Are synthesized and released from the anterior pituitary gland

  • Are synthesized and released from the posterior pituitary gland


Posterior pituitary disorder
Posterior Pituitary Disorder Pituitary

  • Diabetes Insipidus: hyposecretion of ADH, inability to conserve water appropriately


Anterior pituitary disorders
Anterior Pituitary Disorders Pituitary

  • Gigantism: hypersecretion of growth hormone (during growth phase)

  • Pituitary Dwarfism: hyposecretion of growth hormone (during growth phase)


Anterior pituitary disorders1
Anterior Pituitary Disorders Pituitary

  • Acromegaly: hypersecretion of growth hormone after bones have stopped growth


Acromegaly symptoms
Acromegaly Symptoms Pituitary

  • Bony changes alter facial features:

    • The brow and lower jaw protrude

    • Spacing of the teeth increases

    • Enlarged jaw (prognathism), lips, nose & tongue


Acromegaly symptoms1
Acromegaly PituitarySymptoms

  • Enlarged hands and/or feet

    • Soft tissue swelling of the hands & feet is often an early feature, with patients noticing a change in ring or shoe size

  • Widened fingers or toes due to skin overgrowth with swelling, redness, & pain


Why is growth hormone an abused drug
Why is Growth Hormone an Abused Drug? Pituitary

  • Role of GH in Normal Adults

    • Increases muscle growth

    • Decreases fat stores


Thyroid gland
Thyroid Gland Pituitary


Thyroid gland1
Thyroid Gland Pituitary

  • Secretes thyroid hormones:

    • Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3)


Thyroid gland2
Thyroid Gland Pituitary

  • Secretion: regulated by hypothalamus (TRH) & pituitary (TSH) hormones

  • Action of T4 & T3

    • Increase metabolic rate & heat prodn.

    • Development of fetal nervous system (cretinism results from lack of T4 & T3)


Disorders of the thyroid gland
Disorders of the Thyroid Gland Pituitary

  • Hypothyroidism:

    • Children: cretinism

    • Adults: myxedema

    • Low BMR, Lethargy, Weight gain, Low body temp.

  • Hyperthyroidism: Graves Disease

    • Increased BMR

    • Hyperactivity, nervousness, agitation

    • Weight loss

    • Exophthalmos


  • Hypothyroidism and goiter
    Hypothyroidism and Goiter Pituitary

    • Causes of Goiter

      • Low iodide intake

      • Genetic mutation

      • Diet

    • Direct cause is

    • excess TSH secretion



    Goiters can be caused by
    Goiters can be caused by: Pituitary

    • Too little iodide in the diet

    • Too much iodide in the diet


    Too little iodide in the diet causes a goiter because
    Too little iodide in the diet causes a goiter because: Pituitary

    • Not enough T3/T4 is produced

    • Not enough negative fdbk of T3/T4 on the pituitary/hypothalamus

    • Excess secretion of TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone)


    The factor that most often is the direct stimulus that causes a goiter is excess
    The factor that most often is the Pituitarydirect stimulus that causes a goiter is excess:

    • Iodide

    • T3/T4

    • TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone)


    Exophthalmos and Hyperthyroidism Pituitary

    Exophthalmos is caused by oversecretion of the thyroid hormone which leads to accumulation of fluid behind the eyes causing the eyes to bulge out.


    Hyperthyroidism patient
    Hyperthyroidism Patient Pituitary

    Hyperthyroid

    Normal


    Hypothyroidism and cretinism
    Hypothyroidism and Cretinism Pituitary

    Cretinism is characterized by mental retardation, dwarfism and delayed

    sexual development and is caused by undersecretion of thyroid hormone during fetal life or infancy.


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