Chapter 10
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Chapter 10. The Endocrine System. The Endocrine System. Endocrine System Characteristics. Each hormone acts only on specific cells (target cells) Only target cells have receptors for specific hormones Endocrine control slower than nervous system

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Chapter 10

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Chapter 10

Chapter 10

The Endocrine System


Chapter 10

The Endocrine System


Endocrine system characteristics

Endocrine System Characteristics

  • Each hormone acts only on specific cells (target cells)

  • Only target cells have receptors for specific hormones

  • Endocrine control slower than nervous system

  • Endocrine and nervous systems complement each other


Endocrine functions hormones

Endocrine Functions: Hormones

  • Hormones:

    • Come from endocrine glands

    • Circulate in the blood stream

    • Act on specific cells in the body


Chapter 10

Exocrine Gland


Chapter 10

Classification of Hormones: Steroid Hormones


Lipid soluble and water soluble hormones interact differently with target cells

Lipid-soluble and water-soluble hormones interact differently with target cells

  • Steroid Hormones:

    • Lipid soluble, chemically derived from cholesterol

    • Bind to receptorsinside target cells

    • Activate specific genes to produce specific proteins


Chapter 10

How Steroid Hormones Act


Characteristics of non steroid hormones

Characteristics of Non-steroid Hormones

  • Nonsteroid hormones:

    • Water soluble

    • Bind to receptors on target cell membranes

    • Work through intermediate mechanisms (second messengers) to activate existing enzymes

    • Faster action than steroid hormones; time to action = seconds to minutes


Chapter 10

How water-soluble

hormones act


Hormone receptors

Hormone Receptors

  • All hormones work through receptors

  • Target cells (and only target cells) for a hormone contain receptors for that hormone

  • Example: Estrogen Receptor Knockout (ERKO) mouse (and human)


In order for a hormone to work on a cell or tissue

In order for a hormone to work on a cell (or tissue):

  • Receptors are useful but not essential

  • Receptors for that hormone must be present


Feedback mechanisms regulate the secretion of hormones

Feedback mechanisms regulate the secretion of hormones

  • Refer to in-class worksheet


Hypothalamus and pituitary glands

Hypothalamus and Pituitary Glands

  • Hormones from the hypothalamus regulate the pituitary gland

  • Neurosecretory cells: part neuron; part endocrine organ

  • Pituitary hormones often prompt other glands to release hormones


The hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland

The Hypothalamus and Anterior Pituitary Gland

  • Anterior pituitary

    • Connection to hypothalamus: releasing (and inhibiting) hormones from hypothalamus travel to pituitary through pituitary portal vessels

    • No nerve connection to hypothalamus


Neurosecretory cells from the hypothalamus control the pituitary

Neurosecretory Cells From the Hypothalamus Control the Pituitary


True false

True/False

Neurosecretory cells have characteristics of both hormone secreting cells and neurons


Hormones of the pituitary gland

Hormones of the Pituitary Gland


Hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary gland

Hypothalamus and the Posterior Pituitary Gland

  • Posterior pituitary

    • Connection to hypothalamus: hormones made in hypothalamus, stored in posterior pituitary

    • Neurosecretory cells project to post. pit.


Hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary gland1

Hypothalamus and the Posterior Pituitary Gland

  • Posterior pituitary Hormones (protein)

    • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH): conserves water in kidneys, regulates water balance in body

    • Regulated by:

      • High/Low water intake

      • Alcohol


Hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary gland2

Hypothalamus and the Posterior Pituitary Gland

  • Posterior pituitary Hormones (protein)

    • Oxytocin induces:

      • Uterine contractions during labor

      • Milk ejection through neuroendocrine reflex

      • Behavioral Effects: Love/Trust/Bonding


Chapter 10

Oxytocin


Oxytocin

Oxytocin

  • Human Sexual Response:

    • Oxytocin may have a role in sexual arousal, orgasm & sexual satiety/satisfaction

  • CNS: Penile erection, copulatory behavior

  • Trust/Love

    • Pair bonding

  • Maternal Behavior:

    • Oxytocin induces maternal behavior in female rats


Chapter 10

Oxytocin


Oxytocin and adh antidiuretic hormone

Oxytocin and ADH (antidiuretic hormone)

  • Are synthesized and released from the anterior pituitary gland

  • Are synthesized and released from the posterior pituitary gland


Posterior pituitary disorder

Posterior Pituitary Disorder

  • Diabetes Insipidus: hyposecretion of ADH, inability to conserve water appropriately


Anterior pituitary disorders

Anterior Pituitary Disorders

  • Gigantism: hypersecretion of growth hormone (during growth phase)

  • Pituitary Dwarfism: hyposecretion of growth hormone (during growth phase)


Anterior pituitary disorders1

Anterior Pituitary Disorders

  • Acromegaly: hypersecretion of growth hormone after bones have stopped growth


Acromegaly symptoms

Acromegaly Symptoms

  • Bony changes alter facial features:

    • The brow and lower jaw protrude

    • Spacing of the teeth increases

    • Enlarged jaw (prognathism), lips, nose & tongue


Acromegaly symptoms1

AcromegalySymptoms

  • Enlarged hands and/or feet

    • Soft tissue swelling of the hands & feet is often an early feature, with patients noticing a change in ring or shoe size

  • Widened fingers or toes due to skin overgrowth with swelling, redness, & pain


Why is growth hormone an abused drug

Why is Growth Hormone an Abused Drug?

  • Role of GH in Normal Adults

    • Increases muscle growth

    • Decreases fat stores


Thyroid gland

Thyroid Gland


Thyroid gland1

Thyroid Gland

  • Secretes thyroid hormones:

    • Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3)


Thyroid gland2

Thyroid Gland

  • Secretion: regulated by hypothalamus (TRH) & pituitary (TSH) hormones

  • Action of T4 & T3

    • Increase metabolic rate & heat prodn.

    • Development of fetal nervous system (cretinism results from lack of T4 & T3)


Disorders of the thyroid gland

Disorders of the Thyroid Gland

  • Hypothyroidism:

    • Children: cretinism

    • Adults: myxedema

    • Low BMR, Lethargy, Weight gain, Low body temp.

  • Hyperthyroidism: Graves Disease

    • Increased BMR

    • Hyperactivity, nervousness, agitation

    • Weight loss

    • Exophthalmos


  • Hypothyroidism and goiter

    Hypothyroidism and Goiter

    • Causes of Goiter

      • Low iodide intake

      • Genetic mutation

      • Diet

    • Direct cause is

    • excess TSH secretion


    Chapter 10

    Low Iodide Goiter


    Goiters can be caused by

    Goiters can be caused by:

    • Too little iodide in the diet

    • Too much iodide in the diet


    Too little iodide in the diet causes a goiter because

    Too little iodide in the diet causes a goiter because:

    • Not enough T3/T4 is produced

    • Not enough negative fdbk of T3/T4 on the pituitary/hypothalamus

    • Excess secretion of TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone)


    The factor that most often is the direct stimulus that causes a goiter is excess

    The factor that most often is the direct stimulus that causes a goiter is excess:

    • Iodide

    • T3/T4

    • TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone)


    Chapter 10

    Exophthalmos and Hyperthyroidism

    Exophthalmos is caused by oversecretion of the thyroid hormone which leads to accumulation of fluid behind the eyes causing the eyes to bulge out.


    Hyperthyroidism patient

    Hyperthyroidism Patient

    Hyperthyroid

    Normal


    Hypothyroidism and cretinism

    Hypothyroidism and Cretinism

    Cretinism is characterized by mental retardation, dwarfism and delayed

    sexual development and is caused by undersecretion of thyroid hormone during fetal life or infancy.


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