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A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e. Chapter 1 Hardware Needs Software to Work. Objectives. Learn that a computer requires both hardware and software to work Learn about the many different hardware components inside of and connected to a computer. Hardware Needs Software to Work.

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a guide to hardware 4e

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e

Chapter 1

Hardware Needs Software to Work

objectives
Objectives
  • Learn that a computer requires both hardware and software to work
  • Learn about the many different hardware components inside of and connected to a computer

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e

hardware needs software to work
Hardware Needs Software to Work
  • Hardware: physical portion of a computer
    • Components: monitor, keyboard, memory, hard drive
  • Software: instructions used to manipulate hardware
    • Requirements: input, processing, storage, output
  • All hardware operations are based on binary values
  • Binary number system consists of two digits: 0 and 1
  • Fundamental groupings of binary numbers:
    • Bit: binary digit that can take on values of 0 or 1
    • Nibble: four bits
    • Byte: four bits

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e

pc hardware components
PC Hardware Components
  • Most input/output (I/O) devices are external to case
  • Most processing and storage devices are internal
  • Central processing unit (CPU)
    • Also called the processor or microprocessor
    • Reads input, processes data, writes data to storage
  • Elements required by I/O and storage devices
    • A method for CPU to communicate with the device
    • Software to instruct and control the device
    • Electricity to power the device

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e

hardware used for input and output
Hardware Used for Input and Output
  • Connections to the case can be cabled or wireless
  • Port: access point located in back or front of case
  • Chief input devices:
    • Keyboard: enhanced type holds 104 keys
    • Mouse: pointing device used to select screen items
  • Chief output devices:
    • Monitor: visually displays primary output of computer
    • Printer: produces output on paper (hard copy)

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e

hardware inside the computer case
Hardware Inside the Computer Case
  • Most storage and processing occurs in the case
  • Internal devices common to most computers:
    • Motherboard containing CPU, memory, other parts
    • Floppy drive, hard drive, CD drive for persistent storage
    • Power supply with power cords supplying electricity
    • Circuit boards for internal and external communication
    • Cables to connect devices to all circuit boards
  • Expansion cards are installed in expansion slots
  • Two types of cables: data (communication) and power

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e

slide7

Figure 1-8 Inside the computer case

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e

the motherboard
The Motherboard
  • The largest and most important circuit board
    • Also known as the main board or system board
    • Contains the CPU, expansion slots, other devices
  • Categories used to group motherboard components
    • Processing, temporary storage, communication, power
  • All devices communicate with CPU on motherboard
  • A peripheral device links to motherboard via cable
  • Some motherboard ports outside of the case:
    • Keyboard, mouse, parallel, USB ports, sound ports

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e

slide9

Figure 1-9 All hardware components are either located on the motherboard or directly or indirectly connected to it because they must all communicate with the CPU

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e

the processor and the chipset
The Processor and the Chipset
  • CPU: chip that performs most data processing
  • Chipset: group of microchips controlling data flow
  • Personal computer (PC): chief focus of this text
  • Major manufacturers of CPUs and chipsets for PCs
    • Intel Corporation, AMD, VIA, SiS, and Cyrix

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e

slide12

Figure 1-12 This motherboard uses two chips in its chipset (notice the bus lines coming from each chip

used for communication)

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e

storage devices
Storage Devices
  • Primary storage (main memory):
    • Temporary storage used by the processor
    • Example: RAM (random access memory)
  • Secondary storage (permanent storage):
    • Enables data to persist after the machine is turned off
    • Examples: hard drive, CD, floppy disk
  • Analogy to primary-secondary memory relationship
    • Book stacks in a library are like permanent storage
    • Books can be moved to a desk (temporary storage)

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e

primary storage
Primary Storage
  • RAM (random access memory):
    • Device providing temporary storage
    • Located on motherboard and on other circuit boards
  • Three types of RAM boards (memory modules):
    • DIMM (dual inline memory module)
    • RIMM (Rambus inline memory module)
    • SIMM (single inline memory module)
  • RAM is volatile (data does not persist)
  • ROM (read-only memory) is nonvolatile

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e

slide15

Figure 1-14 A SIMM, DIMM, or RIMM holds RAM and is mounted directly on a motherboard

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e

secondary storage
Secondary Storage
  • Hard drive
    • Case containing disks that rotate at high speeds
    • An arm with a read/write head traverses the platter
  • Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE)
    • Technology used internally by a hard drive
  • ATA (AT Attachment) standard
    • Specifies motherboard-hard drive interface
    • Types: Serial ATA or parallel ATA (Enhanced IDE)
  • Parallel ATA accommodates up to four IDE devices

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e

secondary storage continued
Secondary Storage (continued)
  • Serial ATA standard
    • Allows for more than four drives in a system
    • Applies only to hard drives and not to other drives
  • Some IDE devices: hard drives, Zip drives, CD drive
  • Floppy drive
    • 3.5-inch disk holding 1.44 MB of data
    • Floppy drive connector is distinct from IDE connectors
  • CD-ROM (compact disc read-only memory) drive
    • Standard equipment for reading software distributions

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e

slide18

Figure 1-22 A motherboard usually provides a connection for a floppy drive cable

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e

motherboard components used for communication among devices
Motherboard Components Used For Communication Among Devices
  • Traces: circuits or paths that move data and power
  • Bus: system of pathways and transmission protocols
  • Data bus
    • Lines in a bus that carry the data
    • Binary bits correspond to voltage values of on or off
    • Data path sizes: 8, 16, 32, 64, or 128 bits wide
  • Main bus on motherboard (system bus, memory bus)
    • Communicates with CPU, memory, and chipset
  • Pulse of system clock carried by line on motherboard

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e

motherboard components used for communication among devices continued
Motherboard Components Used For Communication Among Devices (continued)
  • Devices work according to beats (or cycles)
  • Clock speed is measured in hertz (cycles/second)
    • One megahertz (MHz): one million cycles per second
    • One gigahertz (GHz): one billion cycles per second
  • Common ratings for motherboard buses
    • 1066 MHz, 800 MHz, 533 MHz, or 400 MHz
  • Range of CPU speeds: 166 MHz to 4 GHz
  • Buses for expansion slots: PCI, AGP, ISA

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e

slide21

Figure 1-29 PCI bus expansion slots are shorter than ISA slots and offset farther; the one AGP slot is set farther from the edge of the board

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e

interface expansion cards
Interface (Expansion) Cards
  • Some names for circuits mounted in expansion slots:
    • Circuit cards, adapter boards, expansion cards, cards
  • Cards that connect the CPU to an external device:
    • Video: provides a port for the monitor
    • Sound: provides ports for speakers and microphones
    • Network: provides a port for a network cable
    • Modem: provides ports for phone lines
  • Determine a card’s function by identifying its port

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e

the electrical system
The Electrical System
  • Power supply
    • Most important electrical component
    • Converts AC voltage external source to DC voltage
    • Reduces voltage from 110-120 volts to 12 volts or less
    • Runs a fan to cool the inside of the computer case
  • Temperatures > 185° F can cause component failure
  • Motherboard has 1 or 2 connections to power supply

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e

slide24

Figure 1-35 The motherboard receives its power from the power supply by way of one or more connections located near the edge of the board or near the processor

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e

instructions stored on the motherboard and other boards
Instructions Stored on the Motherboard and Other Boards
  • BIOS (basic input/output system)
    • Data and instructions stored on ROM chips
    • ROM BIOS chips are a type of firmware
  • Three purposes served by motherboard ROM BIOS:
    • System BIOS: used to manage simple devices
    • Startup BIOS: used to start the computer
    • CMOS setup: used to change motherboard settings
  • CMOS RAM: includes date, time, port configurations
  • Flash ROM: ROM chips the can be overwritten

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e

slide26

Figure 1-36 This firmware chip contains flash ROM and CMOS RAM; CMOS RAM is powered by the coin battery located near the chip

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e

advanced configuration and power interface
Advanced Configuration and Power Interface
  • Also known as ACPI
  • Standards specifying a power saving feature
  • Enables a system to power up by a keyboard
  • Supported by most systems, such as Windows XP
  • Advanced Power Management (APM)
    • Older BIOS power management standard

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e

plug and play
Plug and Play
  • Also known as PnP
  • Standard simplifying installation of hardware devices
  • PnP BIOS begins process of configuring devices
  • PnP-compliant operating system completes configuration
  • ESCD (extended system configuration data) Plug and Play BIOS
    • Enhanced version of PnP
    • Stores manual configuration steps

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e

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