A guide to hardware 4e
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A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e. Chapter 1 Hardware Needs Software to Work. Objectives. Learn that a computer requires both hardware and software to work Learn about the many different hardware components inside of and connected to a computer. Hardware Needs Software to Work.

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A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e

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A guide to hardware 4e

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e

Chapter 1

Hardware Needs Software to Work


Objectives

Objectives

  • Learn that a computer requires both hardware and software to work

  • Learn about the many different hardware components inside of and connected to a computer

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e


Hardware needs software to work

Hardware Needs Software to Work

  • Hardware: physical portion of a computer

    • Components: monitor, keyboard, memory, hard drive

  • Software: instructions used to manipulate hardware

    • Requirements: input, processing, storage, output

  • All hardware operations are based on binary values

  • Binary number system consists of two digits: 0 and 1

  • Fundamental groupings of binary numbers:

    • Bit: binary digit that can take on values of 0 or 1

    • Nibble: four bits

    • Byte: four bits

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e


Pc hardware components

PC Hardware Components

  • Most input/output (I/O) devices are external to case

  • Most processing and storage devices are internal

  • Central processing unit (CPU)

    • Also called the processor or microprocessor

    • Reads input, processes data, writes data to storage

  • Elements required by I/O and storage devices

    • A method for CPU to communicate with the device

    • Software to instruct and control the device

    • Electricity to power the device

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e


Hardware used for input and output

Hardware Used for Input and Output

  • Connections to the case can be cabled or wireless

  • Port: access point located in back or front of case

  • Chief input devices:

    • Keyboard: enhanced type holds 104 keys

    • Mouse: pointing device used to select screen items

  • Chief output devices:

    • Monitor: visually displays primary output of computer

    • Printer: produces output on paper (hard copy)

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e


Hardware inside the computer case

Hardware Inside the Computer Case

  • Most storage and processing occurs in the case

  • Internal devices common to most computers:

    • Motherboard containing CPU, memory, other parts

    • Floppy drive, hard drive, CD drive for persistent storage

    • Power supply with power cords supplying electricity

    • Circuit boards for internal and external communication

    • Cables to connect devices to all circuit boards

  • Expansion cards are installed in expansion slots

  • Two types of cables: data (communication) and power

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e


A guide to hardware 4e

Figure 1-8 Inside the computer case

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e


The motherboard

The Motherboard

  • The largest and most important circuit board

    • Also known as the main board or system board

    • Contains the CPU, expansion slots, other devices

  • Categories used to group motherboard components

    • Processing, temporary storage, communication, power

  • All devices communicate with CPU on motherboard

  • A peripheral device links to motherboard via cable

  • Some motherboard ports outside of the case:

    • Keyboard, mouse, parallel, USB ports, sound ports

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e


A guide to hardware 4e

Figure 1-9 All hardware components are either located on the motherboard or directly or indirectly connected to it because they must all communicate with the CPU

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e


A guide to hardware 4e

Figure 1-10 A motherboard provides ports for common I/O devices

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e


The processor and the chipset

The Processor and the Chipset

  • CPU: chip that performs most data processing

  • Chipset: group of microchips controlling data flow

  • Personal computer (PC): chief focus of this text

  • Major manufacturers of CPUs and chipsets for PCs

    • Intel Corporation, AMD, VIA, SiS, and Cyrix

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e


A guide to hardware 4e

Figure 1-12 This motherboard uses two chips in its chipset (notice the bus lines coming from each chip

used for communication)

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e


Storage devices

Storage Devices

  • Primary storage (main memory):

    • Temporary storage used by the processor

    • Example: RAM (random access memory)

  • Secondary storage (permanent storage):

    • Enables data to persist after the machine is turned off

    • Examples: hard drive, CD, floppy disk

  • Analogy to primary-secondary memory relationship

    • Book stacks in a library are like permanent storage

    • Books can be moved to a desk (temporary storage)

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e


Primary storage

Primary Storage

  • RAM (random access memory):

    • Device providing temporary storage

    • Located on motherboard and on other circuit boards

  • Three types of RAM boards (memory modules):

    • DIMM (dual inline memory module)

    • RIMM (Rambus inline memory module)

    • SIMM (single inline memory module)

  • RAM is volatile (data does not persist)

  • ROM (read-only memory) is nonvolatile

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e


A guide to hardware 4e

Figure 1-14 A SIMM, DIMM, or RIMM holds RAM and is mounted directly on a motherboard

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e


Secondary storage

Secondary Storage

  • Hard drive

    • Case containing disks that rotate at high speeds

    • An arm with a read/write head traverses the platter

  • Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE)

    • Technology used internally by a hard drive

  • ATA (AT Attachment) standard

    • Specifies motherboard-hard drive interface

    • Types: Serial ATA or parallel ATA (Enhanced IDE)

  • Parallel ATA accommodates up to four IDE devices

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e


Secondary storage continued

Secondary Storage (continued)

  • Serial ATA standard

    • Allows for more than four drives in a system

    • Applies only to hard drives and not to other drives

  • Some IDE devices: hard drives, Zip drives, CD drive

  • Floppy drive

    • 3.5-inch disk holding 1.44 MB of data

    • Floppy drive connector is distinct from IDE connectors

  • CD-ROM (compact disc read-only memory) drive

    • Standard equipment for reading software distributions

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e


A guide to hardware 4e

Figure 1-22 A motherboard usually provides a connection for a floppy drive cable

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e


Motherboard components used for communication among devices

Motherboard Components Used For Communication Among Devices

  • Traces: circuits or paths that move data and power

  • Bus: system of pathways and transmission protocols

  • Data bus

    • Lines in a bus that carry the data

    • Binary bits correspond to voltage values of on or off

    • Data path sizes: 8, 16, 32, 64, or 128 bits wide

  • Main bus on motherboard (system bus, memory bus)

    • Communicates with CPU, memory, and chipset

  • Pulse of system clock carried by line on motherboard

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e


Motherboard components used for communication among devices continued

Motherboard Components Used For Communication Among Devices (continued)

  • Devices work according to beats (or cycles)

  • Clock speed is measured in hertz (cycles/second)

    • One megahertz (MHz): one million cycles per second

    • One gigahertz (GHz): one billion cycles per second

  • Common ratings for motherboard buses

    • 1066 MHz, 800 MHz, 533 MHz, or 400 MHz

  • Range of CPU speeds: 166 MHz to 4 GHz

  • Buses for expansion slots: PCI, AGP, ISA

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e


A guide to hardware 4e

Figure 1-29 PCI bus expansion slots are shorter than ISA slots and offset farther; the one AGP slot is set farther from the edge of the board

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e


Interface expansion cards

Interface (Expansion) Cards

  • Some names for circuits mounted in expansion slots:

    • Circuit cards, adapter boards, expansion cards, cards

  • Cards that connect the CPU to an external device:

    • Video: provides a port for the monitor

    • Sound: provides ports for speakers and microphones

    • Network: provides a port for a network cable

    • Modem: provides ports for phone lines

  • Determine a card’s function by identifying its port

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e


The electrical system

The Electrical System

  • Power supply

    • Most important electrical component

    • Converts AC voltage external source to DC voltage

    • Reduces voltage from 110-120 volts to 12 volts or less

    • Runs a fan to cool the inside of the computer case

  • Temperatures > 185° F can cause component failure

  • Motherboard has 1 or 2 connections to power supply

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e


A guide to hardware 4e

Figure 1-35 The motherboard receives its power from the power supply by way of one or more connections located near the edge of the board or near the processor

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e


Instructions stored on the motherboard and other boards

Instructions Stored on the Motherboard and Other Boards

  • BIOS (basic input/output system)

    • Data and instructions stored on ROM chips

    • ROM BIOS chips are a type of firmware

  • Three purposes served by motherboard ROM BIOS:

    • System BIOS: used to manage simple devices

    • Startup BIOS: used to start the computer

    • CMOS setup: used to change motherboard settings

  • CMOS RAM: includes date, time, port configurations

  • Flash ROM: ROM chips the can be overwritten

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e


A guide to hardware 4e

Figure 1-36 This firmware chip contains flash ROM and CMOS RAM; CMOS RAM is powered by the coin battery located near the chip

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e


Advanced configuration and power interface

Advanced Configuration and Power Interface

  • Also known as ACPI

  • Standards specifying a power saving feature

  • Enables a system to power up by a keyboard

  • Supported by most systems, such as Windows XP

  • Advanced Power Management (APM)

    • Older BIOS power management standard

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e


Plug and play

Plug and Play

  • Also known as PnP

  • Standard simplifying installation of hardware devices

  • PnP BIOS begins process of configuring devices

  • PnP-compliant operating system completes configuration

  • ESCD (extended system configuration data) Plug and Play BIOS

    • Enhanced version of PnP

    • Stores manual configuration steps

A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e


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