Socioeconomic Dimensions of Transboundary Conservation Planning and Management: Project Results

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Dissertation Structure. IntroductionManuscript 1An Historical and Contemporary Portrait of the Border and the BorderlandsManuscript 2The Reality of Incongruent Political and Managerial Regimes on Either Side of the International BorderManuscript 3The Implications of Grasslands Conservation and

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Socioeconomic Dimensions of Transboundary Conservation Planning and Management: Project Results

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1. Socioeconomic Dimensions of Transboundary Conservation Planning and Management: Project Results Shannon Christie Ph.D. Candidate Department of Geography and Planning University of Saskatchewan

2. Dissertation Structure Introduction Manuscript 1 An Historical and Contemporary Portrait of the Border and the Borderlands Manuscript 2 The Reality of Incongruent Political and Managerial Regimes on Either Side of the International Border Manuscript 3 The Implications of Grasslands Conservation and Management Initiatives for Local Agricultural Livelihoods Synthesis and Conclusion

3. Dissertation Research Methods Field Work Site Visits Participant Observation Attendance at Public Meetings Interviews Semi-Structured Key Informant Interviews Document Analysis Ecoregional Planning Documents Historical and Contemporary Map Analysis Regional Literature My research incorporates a multiple methods approach. I will begin with field work, visiting southwestern Saskatchewan and northern Montana. Included in site visits is basic participant observation, or observing daily activities and community dynamics and interactions. I will also attend public meetings to better understand the roles of various stakeholders in decision-making, and to witness inter-stakeholder dynamics and interactions. While in the field, I will conduct interviews with key informants representing various stakeholder groups, including public agencies and ENGOs, farmers and ranchers, representatives from the energy development and extraction industry, and representatives from First Nations communities. I will also conduct document analysis, but examining public-private property regimes and changes in the international border over time using historical and contemporary maps and census data. I will explore how residents’ perceptions of the region have changed over time by examining regional literature. Finally, I will investigate the usefulness of the ecoregional approach to environmental management by examining ecoregional planning documents produced by public agencies.My research incorporates a multiple methods approach. I will begin with field work, visiting southwestern Saskatchewan and northern Montana. Included in site visits is basic participant observation, or observing daily activities and community dynamics and interactions. I will also attend public meetings to better understand the roles of various stakeholders in decision-making, and to witness inter-stakeholder dynamics and interactions. While in the field, I will conduct interviews with key informants representing various stakeholder groups, including public agencies and ENGOs, farmers and ranchers, representatives from the energy development and extraction industry, and representatives from First Nations communities. I will also conduct document analysis, but examining public-private property regimes and changes in the international border over time using historical and contemporary maps and census data. I will explore how residents’ perceptions of the region have changed over time by examining regional literature. Finally, I will investigate the usefulness of the ecoregional approach to environmental management by examining ecoregional planning documents produced by public agencies.

4. Report Structure Introduction Transboundary Population Characteristics Over Time Transboundary Agricultural Characteristics Over Time Conclusions

5. Report Research Methods Data Acquisition and Collection Census of Population Census of Agriculture Graphs Microsoft Excel Mapping ArcGIS 9

6. Introduction

10. This collage summarizes some of the key environmental planning and management challenges in the Frenchman River-Bitter Creek area. First, this region is historically dominated by agricultural land uses including the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock. The region has also recently been impacted economically by reduced international trade in livestock due to border restrictions following the BSE crisis. Agricultural land uses lead to pressures to conserve land for agricultural uses, to protect lands from agricultural uses (such as overgrazing or the introduction of invasive weed species), and creates issues such as agricultural waste management. This can present a problem for the maintenance of regional watershed integrity, such as the Frenchman River (shown here). Invasive species of weeds and grasses are identified as a major environmental threat to native grasslands. This region is increasingly subject to pressures from oil and gas exploration and extraction. Native species such as the sage grouse are threatened by large scale energy development; for example, sage grouse have been shown not to nest in proximity to active oil and gas wells, and their habitat very closely corresponds to areas of major fossil fuel reserves in Montana. Alternative energy resource development, such as the creation of wind farms, such as this one near Gull Lake, SK, can create environmental problems as well, due to their consumption of large areas of land and the production of noise and shadows. Finally, the Frenchman River-Bitter Creek area has a rich aboriginal and American Indian history, though historical land policies resulted in the relocation of native peoples away from the 49th parallel for reasons of reducing transboundary cohesiveness and to develop fledgling national security. In addition, the existing communities in the FRBC area are characterized by rural decline and aging populations – young people are increasingly forced to leave small communities and their dwindling services and amenities in search of educational or work opportunities.This collage summarizes some of the key environmental planning and management challenges in the Frenchman River-Bitter Creek area. First, this region is historically dominated by agricultural land uses including the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock. The region has also recently been impacted economically by reduced international trade in livestock due to border restrictions following the BSE crisis. Agricultural land uses lead to pressures to conserve land for agricultural uses, to protect lands from agricultural uses (such as overgrazing or the introduction of invasive weed species), and creates issues such as agricultural waste management. This can present a problem for the maintenance of regional watershed integrity, such as the Frenchman River (shown here). Invasive species of weeds and grasses are identified as a major environmental threat to native grasslands. This region is increasingly subject to pressures from oil and gas exploration and extraction. Native species such as the sage grouse are threatened by large scale energy development; for example, sage grouse have been shown not to nest in proximity to active oil and gas wells, and their habitat very closely corresponds to areas of major fossil fuel reserves in Montana. Alternative energy resource development, such as the creation of wind farms, such as this one near Gull Lake, SK, can create environmental problems as well, due to their consumption of large areas of land and the production of noise and shadows. Finally, the Frenchman River-Bitter Creek area has a rich aboriginal and American Indian history, though historical land policies resulted in the relocation of native peoples away from the 49th parallel for reasons of reducing transboundary cohesiveness and to develop fledgling national security. In addition, the existing communities in the FRBC area are characterized by rural decline and aging populations – young people are increasingly forced to leave small communities and their dwindling services and amenities in search of educational or work opportunities.

11. Transboundary Population Characteristics Over Time

12. 2007: Population Projection Based on 2000 Census Pre 1920: Different County Boundaries 1912-1915: Phillips County Part of Blaine County Pre 1912: Phillips County + Blaine County part of Choteau County

13. Significant (up to 34.9%) Population Loss in 10-Year Period 1 Rural Municipality (Arlington) shows an increase in population

14. Family Size U.S. National Average (2000) = 3.14 Canadian National Average (2001) = 3.0 Average (2000-2001) for all RMs and Counties = 3.0

15. If currency exchange considered, RMs and Counties are more equal, with RMs remaining slightly higher

16. Most Canadian residents resided at the same address 5 years ago More movement/mobility in the Montana population Regionally, the population is stable and is not very mobile

18. Transboundary Agricultural Characteristics Over Time

21. Significant decreases in the number of farms in Saskatchewan Small increases in the number of farms in Montana

36. Synthesis Older farm operators in Montana with fewer young farmers replacing them More land inputs in Canada Commercial Fertilizers, Herbicides, Insecticides, Manure Irrigation more widely used in Montana More data on soil conservation practices in Canada

37. Report – Dissertation Linkages Evidence of aging populations supports claims that communities are disappearing and the rancher is an endangered species Proof of low regional mobility corroborates claims of “I’ve lived here all my life” and multi-generational families International differences in data collection and availability confirm assumptions of fragmentation across the border – and supports evidence of ignorance across the border

38. Acknowledgments Pat Fargey, Grasslands National Park and Parks Canada The Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada Drs. Maureen Reed, Geoff Cunfer, Bram Noble, Xulin Guo and Martin Phillipson Rebecca Zagozewski Dr. Geoff Cunfer, Andrew Dunlop, Valery Companiytsev and Dr. Theresa Garvin The Crossing the Medicine Line Network

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