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mutations. Schoonover-biology. Mutation: The Basis of Genetic Change. Mutation – a change in structure or amount of DNA Mutagens – factor that causes a mutation Radiation Chemicals. Kinds of mutations. Point mutation – one nucleotide (or base) is changed

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Mutations

mutations

Schoonover-biology


Mutation the basis of genetic change
Mutation: The Basis of Genetic Change

  • Mutation – a change in structure or amount of DNA

  • Mutagens – factor that causes a mutation

    • Radiation

    • Chemicals


Kinds of mutations
Kinds of mutations

  • Point mutation – one nucleotide (or base) is changed

    • Ex: G instead of an A

  • Frameshift mutation – one or more nucleotides are deleted or inserted

    • Ex: A GG is deleted from the DNA code

    • Ex: A TGG is inserted in the DNA code

  • Which do you think is worse?


Results of mutations
Results of Mutations

  • Silent mutation – no change in amino acid

    • Ex: GCC becomes GCU

    • Both Alanine

  • Missencemutation – change in amino acid

    • Ex: CAC becomes CAA

    • Histidine becomes glutamine

  • Frameshift mutation – insertions or deletions = all new amino acids

    • Could result in ending protein synthesis early (stop codon)


Chromosome mutations
Chromosome mutations

  • Deletion – a piece of the chromosome is lost

  • Duplication – a piece of the chromosome remains attached

  • Translocation – a chromosome piece ends up in a different spot


Effects of dna change
Effects of DNA change?

  • 3 outcomes:

    1. no difference

    2. harmful

    3. beneficial

  • Is the change inherited (given to offspring)?

    • Somatic cell or body cell?

      • NO!

    • Germ cell or sex cell or egg or sperm cell or gamete?

      • YES! MAYBE!


Other interesting facts
Other interesting facts…

  • Genome – all the DNA in an organism’s chromosomes

  • DNA is universal – but codons may code for different amino acids in different organisms

  • DNA is made of introns (noncoding regions) and exons (coding regions)

    • About 80% of DNA does not code for proteins (INTRONS!!!)

  • DNA is not just in the nucleus

    • Chloroplasts have DNA

    • Mitochondria has DNA

      • About 0.1% of your DNA is in your mitochondria

      • This DNA comes from only mom…why?


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