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mutations. Schoonover-biology. Mutation: The Basis of Genetic Change. Mutation – a change in structure or amount of DNA Mutagens – factor that causes a mutation Radiation Chemicals. Kinds of mutations. Point mutation – one nucleotide (or base) is changed

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mutations

mutations

Schoonover-biology

mutation the basis of genetic change
Mutation: The Basis of Genetic Change
  • Mutation – a change in structure or amount of DNA
  • Mutagens – factor that causes a mutation
    • Radiation
    • Chemicals
kinds of mutations
Kinds of mutations
  • Point mutation – one nucleotide (or base) is changed
    • Ex: G instead of an A
  • Frameshift mutation – one or more nucleotides are deleted or inserted
    • Ex: A GG is deleted from the DNA code
    • Ex: A TGG is inserted in the DNA code
  • Which do you think is worse?
results of mutations
Results of Mutations
  • Silent mutation – no change in amino acid
    • Ex: GCC becomes GCU
    • Both Alanine
  • Missencemutation – change in amino acid
    • Ex: CAC becomes CAA
    • Histidine becomes glutamine
  • Frameshift mutation – insertions or deletions = all new amino acids
    • Could result in ending protein synthesis early (stop codon)
chromosome mutations
Chromosome mutations
  • Deletion – a piece of the chromosome is lost
  • Duplication – a piece of the chromosome remains attached
  • Translocation – a chromosome piece ends up in a different spot
effects of dna change
Effects of DNA change?
  • 3 outcomes:

1. no difference

2. harmful

3. beneficial

  • Is the change inherited (given to offspring)?
    • Somatic cell or body cell?
      • NO!
    • Germ cell or sex cell or egg or sperm cell or gamete?
      • YES! MAYBE!
other interesting facts
Other interesting facts…
  • Genome – all the DNA in an organism’s chromosomes
  • DNA is universal – but codons may code for different amino acids in different organisms
  • DNA is made of introns (noncoding regions) and exons (coding regions)
    • About 80% of DNA does not code for proteins (INTRONS!!!)
  • DNA is not just in the nucleus
    • Chloroplasts have DNA
    • Mitochondria has DNA
      • About 0.1% of your DNA is in your mitochondria
      • This DNA comes from only mom…why?
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