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辐射防护基础知识 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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辐射防护基础知识. 北京市辐射安全技术中心 电离环境室 曾利萍. 四、 电离辐射的生物效应 辐射损伤的机理 电离辐射对人体的作用 效应的类型 五、辐射防护 辐射防护的基本任务和目的 辐射防护的基本措施 外照射防护 内照射防护 实例讨论 六、辐射监测简介. 内容纲要:. 一、简介 简述辐射 简述放射性 二、 电离辐射与物质的相互作用 α 粒子与物质的相互作用 β 粒子与物质的相互作用 γ 射线与物质的相互作用 中子与物质的相互作用 三、 电离辐射相关的量与单位

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辐射防护基础知识

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6802366


6802366

activityA

absorbed dose, D

equivalent dose, HT

effective doseE


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1

  • eg.()

  • (1)

    (2)X


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1

  • (1)

    (2)nX


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( )

2

  • 1

    1896


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2


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% activity remaining

2

  • 2T1/2

    , 60Co5.26222Rn3.82

Number of half-lives


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3

  • 3~109+10


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3

  • 4nA4A=4n

    Th-23210Pb-208Th-2321.41010

  • 4n+2A42A=4n+2

    U-23814Pb-206U-2384.468109

  • 4n+3()A43A=4n+3

    U-23511Pb-207U-235U-2357.038108

    3

  • 4n+1A41A=4n+1

    Np-2372.14106


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4

npe

ON

eg. 3H14C7Be

eg. 238U232Th40K


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2. 4 mSv/a,

(222Rn, 60%)


1 alpha

1 alpha

  • 2, 4,

    , ,, 49 Mev

    , (),

    , 15Mev3.5cm, 23 m,

    ,. , , :


2 beta

2beta

  • ,1,1/1840,

    ,,,1,

    15 Mev, 3.5cm,

    15 Mev,20m


2 beta1

2beta

  • ,,,(), X,Z,

    X, ,,,,,, ,

  • 16


3 gamma

3gamma

  • (), , ,,,

    3

    , ,,

    3, ,,

    , Z4,Z/A, Z ,,

  • X


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4

  • , , ,,

  • ,

    (5 kev,0.025ev ),

    (5-100 kev)

    (0.1-500Mev)


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4

  • [5 keV 5--100 keV 100keV--500MeV ]

    10Mev

    ,,,

    ,,,,,,

    ,,,,,,

  • 19


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eg.

  • 1ACTIVITYA

    Bq

    1Bq 1/

    1Ci 3.71010Bq


2 absorbed dose d

2ABSORBED DOSE,D

Gy,

1Gy1/

/Gy/h/mGy/h/Gy/h


3 equivalent dose ht

3EQUIVALENT DOSE,HT

WR

WR235


3 equivalent dose ht1

3EQUIVALENT DOSE,HT

  • HTD WR

  • Sv

    mSvSv

    X0.1

  • W235


4 effective dose e

4EFFECTIVE DOSEE

WT

  • HTE

  • ESv


5 exposure x

5EXPOSUREX

X

/C/kg

R

1R2.5810-4/C/kg


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1

DNA

( OH- H+)


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n

1

2


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10-16 s

10-12 s

H2O2, H02, H-, OH-

DNA


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DNA


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2

  • 4506100


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3

  • 100.02

  • ()

  • eg.


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3

  • 1

    2

    1

    2

    3

    4


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1

:

  • //

  • ,


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2

(2)

ALARAAs Low As Reasonably Achievable

(1)

(3)


Gb18871 2002

GB18871-2002


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3

  • /


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4


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X

137Cs 10%

2.2 cm ,

5.4 cm ,

16 cm


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XZ 1 MeV Z823XZ130.4%

X


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X Z4Z/AZ

X


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5 keV0.25 eV5100 keV0.1~500MeV


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4

4.1

  • 4.2

    -137-40

  • 4.3


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XX


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X


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Kr I r0/ r2

Kr mGymin-1

x : XmGym2mA-1min-1

r01m

ImA

r(m)

X

  • xX


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  • /

    1

    2

  • eg.

    eg.


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  • /50m3m

  • /

    1

    2


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  • 10MeV

  • 1

    210

    3


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55


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  • 6.1

  • 5mSv/a

  • 6.1.1

    6.1.2


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6.2

6.2.1

X

  • 6.2.2

  • 6.2.3


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6.3


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