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Rome:. From Republic to Empire. Location of Rome. Italian Peninsula ( Italy today) Centrally located on the Mediterranean Sea Distant from Eastern Mediterranean Powers. Alps and Mediterranean Sea. Protected Rome from invasion. Trade.

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From Republic to Empire

Location of rome

Location of Rome

  • Italian Peninsula (Italy today)

  • Centrally located on the Mediterranean Sea

  • Distant from Eastern Mediterranean Powers

Alps and mediterranean sea

Alps and Mediterranean Sea

  • Protected Rome from invasion



  • Rome prospered due to trade on the Mediterranean Sea

Copy cats

Copy Cats!

  • The Romans based their religion on Greek Mythology

    • They were also polytheistic

    • Many of the gods/goddesses were the same, but the Romans changed their names

    • The gods explained human qualities and life events

Roman gods

Roman Gods

Based on Greek Gods

  • Jupiter (Zeus): Chief god

  • Juno (Hera): Goddess of marriage; wife of Zeus

  • Apollo: God of light, the sun and music

  • Diana (Artemis): Goddess of hunting and wild things

  • Venus (Aphrodite): Goddess of love

  • Minerva (Athena): Goddess of wisdom and war

Roman republic

Roman Republic

  • Republic: rule by the people(re=by, public=people)

  • Representative democracy: legislators (representatives) are elected by the citizens to represent their interests

Roman citizens 3

Roman Citizens (3)

  • Paid taxes

  • Men had the right to vote

  • Men had to serve in the military



  • Land-owners of noble Latin birth

“Patricia is a rich snob”



  • Majority of Romans: common people

  • Artisans, shopkeepers, and small farmers



  • The property of their owners

  • Were taken by conquest

  • Had no freedom or rights

The assemblies

The Assemblies

More democratic, but less powerful

than the senate

  • CenturiateAssembly: consisted of all citizen-soldiers; controlled by Patricians.

  • Tribal Assembly: elected tribunes and made laws for the plebeians and later for the whole republic.

The senate

The Senate

The most powerful lawmaking

body in Rome

  • 300 members were chosen (for life) from the Patrician class

  • Later plebeians were allowed to join



  • Two officials elected to command the army and direct the government

  • Served for a one-year term.

  • One consul could always veto (overrule) the other’s decisions.



One whose word was law

  • In a times of crisis, a dictator would be given absolute power to command the army and make laws

  • A dictator’s power lasted for only six months

Twelve tables

Twelve Tables

Laws carved on tablets and hung in the forum

  • Gave all free citizens a right to the protection of the law.

  • Established ideas seen in modern laws such as the principle of innocent until proven guilty.

Punic wars

Punic Wars

  • 264 to 146 BC

  • 3 wars fought between Rome and Carthage

Hannibal: General of Carthage



  • Trading empire located in North Africa (present-day Tunisia)

  • Rival of Rome for control of trade on the Mediterranean

The first punic war

The First Punic War

  • Fought over Sicily for 23 years

  • Carthage lost

  • This was Rome’s first province

Second punic war

Second Punic War

  • Carthage was led by HANNIBAL a brilliant general.

  • He used 50,000 men, 9,000 cavalry and 60 elephants.

  • To surprise Rome he went through the Alps

The second punic war

The Second Punic War

  • For 10 years he pillaged northern Italy

  • Finally a Roman general name SCIPIO defeated Hannibal.

The third punic war

The Third Punic War

  • By this time, Carthage was no longer a threat.

  • Catoan influential senator reminded them of the terror Hannibal laid on Italy.

  • Romans destroy Carthage and sold all of Carthaginians into slavery!

Results of the punic wars

Results of the Punic Wars

  • Hannibal was defeated when Rome attacked Carthage

  • Rome destroyed Carthage

  • Increased trade brought great wealth to Rome

Growth of rome

Growth of Rome

  • Following the Punic wars, Rome grew rapidly, taking control of the Mediterranean basin (including Greece and the Hellenistic world of the Eastern Mediterranean, North Africa, and Spain).

Spread of slavery

Spread of Slavery

  • Romans made slaves of captured peoples during the wars and conquests which followed

  • By 100 BC slaves made up one-third of Rome’s population

Roman Slave Collar

Expansion and wealth creates problems

Expansion and Wealth Creates Problems

  • The spread of slavery caused small farmers (former soldiers) to lose their land.

  • The influx of wealth caused prices to rise (inflation)



Loss of jobs

  • Landless former farmer-soldiers flocked into the into cities looking for jobs and joined the ranks of the restless urban poor (25% of the population)

The gap between the rich and the poor widened

Decline of the republic

Decline of the Republic

The end of Rome’s democratic government

  • Civil wars erupted due to class conflicts and rivalries between politician-generals

  • Another civil war erupted over the power of Julius Caesar

The first triumvirate

The First Triumvirate

  • Three rulers who joined forces to take power from the senate and dominate Rome.

Caesar CrassusPompey

Julius caesar

Julius Caesar

  • He conquered Gaul (France today)

  • He had the support of the masses and the army

Julius caesar as dictator

Julius Caesar as Dictator

  • Caesar went to war with Pompey and won

  • He returned to Rome with his army and forced the senate to make him dictator for life.

Julius caesar is assassinated

Julius Caesar is Assassinated

  • A group of senators stabbed Julius Caesar to death in the senate chamber

More civil wars

More Civil Wars

  • After Julius Caesar’s death civil war erupted

  • Octavian (Augustus) joined forces with Mark Anthony and Lepidus and together they took control of Rome for ten years.

  • They became the 2nd Triumvirate

Octavian vs marc anthony

Octavian vs. Marc Anthony

  • Civil war erupted again between Octavian and Mark Anthony

  • Octavian won.

Octavian (Augustus)

Anthony and Cleopatra

Augustus caesar

Augustus Caesar

  • Octavian assumed absolute power and accepted the title “Augustus”

  • Rome became an empire ruled by an emperor (no longer a republic).

The pax romana

The PaxRomana

  • Two hundred years of peace and prosperity established by the rule of Augustus (pax = peace, Romana = Roman)

  • The Roman Empire continued to expand and solidify

Roman empire

Roman Empire

  • By the end of the second century, the Roman Empire stretched from Spain to Mesopotamia, and from North Africa to Great Britain.

Economic impact

Economic Impact

  • Augustus established a uniform system of money helping to expand trade.

  • It was safe to travel and trade on Roman roads.

Social impact

Social Impact

  • Augustus returned stability to the social classes

  • Increased emphasis on the family

Political impact

Political Impact

  • Augustus created a civil service: He paid workers to manage the affairs of government (postal system, tax collection, etc.)

  • He developed a uniform rule of law

Problems with succession

Problems With Succession

Selection of the next emperor

  • Because Rome had no written law for choosing a new emperor, crisis or civil war could occur when an emperor died.

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