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Rome:. From Republic to Empire. Location of Rome. Italian Peninsula ( Italy today) Centrally located on the Mediterranean Sea Distant from Eastern Mediterranean Powers. Alps and Mediterranean Sea. Protected Rome from invasion. Trade.

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Rome:

From Republic to Empire


Location of Rome

  • Italian Peninsula (Italy today)

  • Centrally located on the Mediterranean Sea

  • Distant from Eastern Mediterranean Powers


Alps and Mediterranean Sea

  • Protected Rome from invasion


Trade

  • Rome prospered due to trade on the Mediterranean Sea


Copy Cats!

  • The Romans based their religion on Greek Mythology

    • They were also polytheistic

    • Many of the gods/goddesses were the same, but the Romans changed their names

    • The gods explained human qualities and life events


Roman Gods

Based on Greek Gods

  • Jupiter (Zeus): Chief god

  • Juno (Hera): Goddess of marriage; wife of Zeus

  • Apollo: God of light, the sun and music

  • Diana (Artemis): Goddess of hunting and wild things

  • Venus (Aphrodite): Goddess of love

  • Minerva (Athena): Goddess of wisdom and war


Roman Republic

  • Republic: rule by the people(re=by, public=people)

  • Representative democracy: legislators (representatives) are elected by the citizens to represent their interests


Roman Citizens (3)

  • Paid taxes

  • Men had the right to vote

  • Men had to serve in the military


Patricians

  • Land-owners of noble Latin birth

“Patricia is a rich snob”


Plebeians

  • Majority of Romans: common people

  • Artisans, shopkeepers, and small farmers


Slaves

  • The property of their owners

  • Were taken by conquest

  • Had no freedom or rights


The Assemblies

More democratic, but less powerful

than the senate

  • CenturiateAssembly: consisted of all citizen-soldiers; controlled by Patricians.

  • Tribal Assembly: elected tribunes and made laws for the plebeians and later for the whole republic.


The Senate

The most powerful lawmaking

body in Rome

  • 300 members were chosen (for life) from the Patrician class

  • Later plebeians were allowed to join


Consuls

  • Two officials elected to command the army and direct the government

  • Served for a one-year term.

  • One consul could always veto (overrule) the other’s decisions.


Dictator

One whose word was law

  • In a times of crisis, a dictator would be given absolute power to command the army and make laws

  • A dictator’s power lasted for only six months


Twelve Tables

Laws carved on tablets and hung in the forum

  • Gave all free citizens a right to the protection of the law.

  • Established ideas seen in modern laws such as the principle of innocent until proven guilty.


Punic Wars

  • 264 to 146 BC

  • 3 wars fought between Rome and Carthage

Hannibal: General of Carthage


Carthage

  • Trading empire located in North Africa (present-day Tunisia)

  • Rival of Rome for control of trade on the Mediterranean


The First Punic War

  • Fought over Sicily for 23 years

  • Carthage lost

  • This was Rome’s first province


Second Punic War

  • Carthage was led by HANNIBAL a brilliant general.

  • He used 50,000 men, 9,000 cavalry and 60 elephants.

  • To surprise Rome he went through the Alps


The Second Punic War

  • For 10 years he pillaged northern Italy

  • Finally a Roman general name SCIPIO defeated Hannibal.


The Third Punic War

  • By this time, Carthage was no longer a threat.

  • Catoan influential senator reminded them of the terror Hannibal laid on Italy.

  • Romans destroy Carthage and sold all of Carthaginians into slavery!


Results of the Punic Wars

  • Hannibal was defeated when Rome attacked Carthage

  • Rome destroyed Carthage

  • Increased trade brought great wealth to Rome


Growth of Rome

  • Following the Punic wars, Rome grew rapidly, taking control of the Mediterranean basin (including Greece and the Hellenistic world of the Eastern Mediterranean, North Africa, and Spain).


Spread of Slavery

  • Romans made slaves of captured peoples during the wars and conquests which followed

  • By 100 BC slaves made up one-third of Rome’s population

Roman Slave Collar


Expansion and Wealth Creates Problems

  • The spread of slavery caused small farmers (former soldiers) to lose their land.

  • The influx of wealth caused prices to rise (inflation)


Unemployment

Loss of jobs

  • Landless former farmer-soldiers flocked into the into cities looking for jobs and joined the ranks of the restless urban poor (25% of the population)

The gap between the rich and the poor widened


Decline of the Republic

The end of Rome’s democratic government

  • Civil wars erupted due to class conflicts and rivalries between politician-generals

  • Another civil war erupted over the power of Julius Caesar


The First Triumvirate

  • Three rulers who joined forces to take power from the senate and dominate Rome.

Caesar CrassusPompey


Julius Caesar

  • He conquered Gaul (France today)

  • He had the support of the masses and the army


Julius Caesar as Dictator

  • Caesar went to war with Pompey and won

  • He returned to Rome with his army and forced the senate to make him dictator for life.


Julius Caesar is Assassinated

  • A group of senators stabbed Julius Caesar to death in the senate chamber


More Civil Wars

  • After Julius Caesar’s death civil war erupted

  • Octavian (Augustus) joined forces with Mark Anthony and Lepidus and together they took control of Rome for ten years.

  • They became the 2nd Triumvirate


Octavian vs. Marc Anthony

  • Civil war erupted again between Octavian and Mark Anthony

  • Octavian won.

Octavian (Augustus)

Anthony and Cleopatra


Augustus Caesar

  • Octavian assumed absolute power and accepted the title “Augustus”

  • Rome became an empire ruled by an emperor (no longer a republic).


The PaxRomana

  • Two hundred years of peace and prosperity established by the rule of Augustus (pax = peace, Romana = Roman)

  • The Roman Empire continued to expand and solidify


Roman Empire

  • By the end of the second century, the Roman Empire stretched from Spain to Mesopotamia, and from North Africa to Great Britain.


Economic Impact

  • Augustus established a uniform system of money helping to expand trade.

  • It was safe to travel and trade on Roman roads.


Social Impact

  • Augustus returned stability to the social classes

  • Increased emphasis on the family


Political Impact

  • Augustus created a civil service: He paid workers to manage the affairs of government (postal system, tax collection, etc.)

  • He developed a uniform rule of law


Problems With Succession

Selection of the next emperor

  • Because Rome had no written law for choosing a new emperor, crisis or civil war could occur when an emperor died.


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