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Tissues. Vertebrate Anatomy Chapter 3. Tissue. A group of cells that is similar in structure and function. A group of similar cells working to do the same job. Histology. The study of tissues. 4 Primary Types of Tissue. Epithelium covering Connective support Muscular movement

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Tissues

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Tissues l.jpg

Tissues

Vertebrate Anatomy

Chapter 3


Tissue l.jpg

Tissue

  • A group of cells that is similar in structure and function.

  • A group of similar cells working to do the same job.


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Histology

  • The study of tissues


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4 Primary Types of Tissue

  • Epithelium

    • covering

  • Connective

    • support

  • Muscular

    • movement

  • Nervous

    • control


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Tissues and Organs

  • Organs are made of tissues.

  • Arrangement of the different tissues determines the structure and function of the organ.


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Epithelial Tissue

  • Main functions

    • Lining

    • Covering

    • Glandular

  • Forms boundaries that separate the body from the outside

    • Thus, any substance given off or received by the body must pass through epithelium


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Functions of Epithelium

  • Protection

    • Skin protects the internal body from

      • Biological damage

        • infection

      • Chemical damage

        • poison

      • And more…


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Functions of Epithelium

  • Absorption

    • Example: lining of small intestine absorbs nutrients from food.

Your small intestine can absorb almost as much as me!


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Functions of Epithelium

  • Filtration

    • Epithelium in the kidneys filters out toxins from the bloodstream.


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Functions of Epithelium

  • Secretion

    • Glands produce products called secretions

      • Sweat

      • Oil

      • Digestive enzymes

      • Mucus

      • Hormones


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Special Characteristics of Epithelium

  • Cells fit closely together

  • Form continuous sheets

  • Cells bound at many points by junctions

    • Desmosomes

    • Tight junctions


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Structure of Membranes made of Epithelium

  • Always one free/unattached/exposed surface

    • Top (apical) surface is exposed to

      • Exterior

      • Cavity (internal space) of an internal organ

        • For example – the inside of the stomach


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Structure of Membranes made of Epithelium

  • Lower surface of epithelium always rests on a basement membrane


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Structure of Membranes made of Epithelium

  • Epithelial tissues have NO blood supply of their own.

    • Avascular

  • Rely on diffusion from capillaries in underlying tissue.


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Structure of Membranes made of Epithelium

  • Epithelial tissues can regenerate themselves easily


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Classification of Epithelium

  • Classification according to number of cell layers

    • Simple epithelium

      • Composed of 1 layer of cells

    • Stratified epithelium

      • Composed of more than 1 layer of cells


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Classification of Epithelium

  • Classification according to shape of cells

    • Squamous

      • flat

    • Cuboidal

      • Like dice

    • Columnar

      • Like columns


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Simple Epithelia

  • Used in

    • Absorption

    • Secretion

    • Filtration

  • Generally thin

  • Found in places where diffusion,etc. occur

    • Air sacs of lungs

    • Capillaries

  • NOT good at protection


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Other Simple Epithelium Membranes

  • Serous membranes

    • Slick membranes that line the body cavity and cover internal organs

  • Mucous membranes

    • Line body cavities that open to the exterior

    • Example

      • nasal passages

      • stomach


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Stratified Epithelium

  • More durable

  • Protection

  • Found in places that get abuse/friction

    • Skin

    • Mouth

    • Esophagus


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Glandular Epithelia

  • Cells produce secretions

  • Two types of glands

    • Endocrine

      • Secrete hormones

    • Exocrine

      • Have ducts and secrete onto a surface

        • Like sweat


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Connective Tissue

  • Connects body parts

  • Found everywhere

    • Most abundant

    • Most widespread


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Connective Tissue Functions

  • Protection

  • Support

  • Binding


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Vascularization (blood vessels) of Connective Tissue

  • Most connective tissue is well vascularized, but NOT all are well vascularized.

  • Connective tissue that is not vascularized

    • Tendons

    • Ligaments

    • Cartilage

  • Broken bones heal quicker than torn ligaments due to greater vascularization of bones


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Connective Tissue Structure

  • Cells stuck in a nonliving extracellular matrix

    • Like raisins stuck in raisin bread.

    • Matrix provides hardness (in tissues that are hard)


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Formation of Extracelluar Matrix

  • Produced by cells

  • Secreted to the outside of the cells

  • Matrix has two main parts

    • Ground substance

      • Made mostly of water and chemicals that give it firmness

      • Fluid to rock-like

    • Fibers


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Fibers of the Extracellular Matrix

  • Collagen

  • Elastic

  • Reticular


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Collagen Fibers

  • White fibers

  • High tensile strength

    • Won’t break when stretched


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Elastic fibers

  • Yellow fibers

  • Can stretch and recoil


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Reticular Fibers

  • Fine collagen fibers

  • Form “skeleton” of soft organs such as spleen


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Major Types of Connective Tissue (from most rigid to softest)

  • Bone

  • Cartilage

  • Dense Connective Tissue

  • Loose Connective Tissue

  • Blood


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Bone

  • Osseous tissue

    • Prefix “Osteo-” = bone

  • Hardness given by calcium salts

    • Though bone is hard, it also has amazing flexibility provided by organic components

  • Functions

    • Support

    • Protection

    • Movement

      • With muscles


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Cartilage

  • Less hard and more flexible than bone

  • Found in only a few places

  • 3 types

    • Hyaline

    • Fibrocartilage

    • Elastic cartilage


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Hyaline Cartilage

  • Most widespread type of cartilage

  • Found in

    • Larynx

    • Ribs to sternum

    • Ends of long bones

    • Fetal skeleton


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Fibrocartilage

  • Found in discs separating the vertebrae

  • Very dense with thick collagen fibers throughout


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Elastic Cartilage

  • Found in the external ear.

  • Looks similar to hyaline cartilage, but has elastic fibers in matrix


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Dense Connective Tissue

  • Dense with collagen fibers

    • Resists tension

  • Forms

    • Tendons

      • Attach muscle to bone

    • Ligaments

      • Attach bone to bone

  • Also found in the

    • dermis


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Loose Connective Tissue

  • Soft

  • Two main types (really 3 but…)

    • Aereolar

    • Adipose


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Areolar Tissue

  • The most widely distributed of all connective tissues

  • Cushions/protects body organs

  • Appears as lots of empty space

  • Water reservoir

    • Aereolar tissue soaks up excess fluid in inflamed areas

    • edema


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Adipose Tissue

  • Fat

  • Functions

    • Insulation

    • Protect organs

    • Protect eyeballs

    • Fuel storage


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Blood

  • Extracellular matrix = plasma

  • Function = transport of nutrients, etc.

  • VERY loosely bound connective tissue


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Muscle Tissue

  • Highly specialized to contract / shorten

  • 3 main types

    • Skeletal

    • Cardiac

    • Smooth


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Skeletal Muscle

  • Attached to bones

  • Causes gross (large) body movement

  • VOLUNTARY

  • Striated

    • Striped appearance in microscope


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Cardiac Muscle

  • Found only in the heart

  • INVOLUNTARY

  • Striations (like skeletal) but other differences

    • Shorter cells

    • Fit very tightly together


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Smooth Muscle

  • No striations

  • Walls of hollow organs like:

    • Stomach

    • Esophagus

    • Intestines

  • Peristalsis

    • Wave-like motions that push food along digestive tract


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Nervous Tissue

  • Cell type

  • Receive and conduct electrochemical impulses

  • Control


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Tissue Repair

  • Two types

    • Regeneration

    • Fibrosis


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Regeneration

  • Replacement of damaged tissue by same kinds of cells

    • This image shows regeneration in a zebra fish heart

      • Human hearts won’t do this…


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Fibrosis

  • Replacement of damaged tissue by scar tissue

  • Deep cuts in skin are replaced by scar tissue

    • Usually of inferior quality to original tissue

      • Not UV resistant, etc.


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Healing

  • Clean cuts heal best

  • Epithelial tissue and bone regenerate very successfully

  • Skeletal muscle regenerates poorly

    • Nervous tissue does not regenerate


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Developmental Aspects of Tissues

  • Zygote

  • Cell division

  • Blastula

    • Hollow ball

    • 2, 4, 8 cells etc.

  • Gastrula

    • Rearrangement of embryonic tissues

      • Ball of cells turns “inside-out”

    • Embryonic tissue layers determined


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