Surface wave propagation preliminary work developing a method for surface wave detection
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Surface Wave Propagation Preliminary work developing a method for surface wave detection. Amy Zheng Andrew Johnanneson. Ultrahigh Energy Neutrino Detection. Particles with velocity > will emit radiation due to the Askaryan effect [1]

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Surface Wave Propagation Preliminary work developing a method for surface wave detection

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Surface wave propagation preliminary work developing a method for surface wave detection

Surface Wave Propagation Preliminary work developing a method for surface wave detection

Amy Zheng

Andrew Johnanneson


Ultrahigh energy neutrino detection

Ultrahigh Energy Neutrino Detection

  • Particles with velocity > will emit radiation due to the Askaryan effect [1]

  • Detection is difficult due to internally reflected waves dying off quickly[2]


Surface waves as an detection tool

Surface Waves as an Detection Tool

  • Radiation from Askaryan cascade is trapped in Air-dielectric layer between ice and firn[2]

  • In tandem with existing experiments RICE [3] and ANITA [4]


Why use surface waves

Why Use Surface Waves?

  • Surface waves travel between two mediums[5]

    • Amplitudes fall at the rate

    • Attenuation length times > bulk waves

  • ~800 times more efficient than bulk waves

  • If detection is viable, expanding existing experiments would be far less expensive

  • Surface waves may carry information about neutrinos and their interactions with ice better than the current method


Procedure

Procedure

  • 1 sending + 2 receiving antennas displayed waveshape

  • Physically moved antennas to determine wavelength and thus index of refraction


Example antenna placements

Example Antenna Placements

  • “Air”

  • “Surface”

  • “In”


Translating to refractive index

Translating to refractive index

(1)

Definition of Refractive Index

(2)

Sellmeier Equation


Refractive index of air

Refractive Index of Air

Single or Half λ

λ (cm)

Calculated (2) 1000MHz & 1500MHz n=1.000273[6]


Refractive index of water rms

Refractive Index of Water (rms)

Single or Half λ

λ (cm)

Calculated (2) n~1.3333[7]


Refractive index of nacl rms

Refractive Index of NaCl (rms)

Single or Half λ

λ (cm)

Calculated (2) n~1.544[8]


Refractive index of granulated fused silica sand

Refractive Index of Granulated Fused Silica (sand)

Single or Half λ

λ (cm)

Calculated (2)1000MHz n= 1.73251 [9]

Calculated (2) 1500MHz n= 1.73317


Refractive index of granulated fused silica sand1

Refractive Index of Granulated Fused Silica (sand)

Multiple λ

λ (cm)

Calculated (2) 1000MHz n= 1.73251 [9]

Calculated (2) 1500MHz n= 1.73317


Measurement complications

Measurement Complications

  • Mechanical water waves appeared to alter EM waveform

  • Imprecise measurements due to hand & eye observation

  • Sand and water tend to collect in the connectors

  • Angular error from planar disparity

  • Waveforms disappeared & reappeared on and off

  • Waveforms constantly shift amplitude

  • Background EM noise & reflections often interfered


Future steps

Future Steps

  • Experiment using ice as a medium

  • Change antenna size; more precision

  • Change experimental scale


References

References

  • [1] G.A. Askaryan, Sov. Phys. JETP 14, 441 (1961)

  • [2]J.P. Ralston, Phys. Rev. D 71, 011503 (2005)

  • [3] RICE Collaboration, I. Kravchenkoet al., Astropart. Phys. 19, 15 (2003); S. Razzaque, Sseunarine, D.Z. Besson, D.W. McKay, J.P. Ralston, and D. Seckel, Phys. Rev. D 65, 103002 (2002); Phys. Rev. D 69, 047101 (2004).

  • [4] For information on ANITA, see http://www.phys.hawaii.edu/anita/.

  • [5] J. P. Ralston “An Experiment to Detect Surface Waves on Polar Ice” (2005)

  • [6] Philip E. Ciddor. Refractive index of air: new equations for the visible and near infrared, Appl. Optics 35, 1566-1573 (1996) doi:10.1364/AO.35.001566

  • [7]P. Schiebener, J. Straub, J.M.H. LeveltSengers and J.S. Gallagher, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 19, 677, (1990)

  • [8] Faughn, Jerry S., Raymond A. Serway. College Physics, 6th Edition. Toronto: Brooks/Cole, 2003: 692.

  • [9] I. H. Malitson. Interspecimen Comparison of the Refractive Index of Fused Silica, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1205-1208 (1965) doi:10.1364/JOSA.55.001205

  • [misc] Colloquium Notes from John P. Ralston

  • Refractive index calculations for relative reference only:

    • n found for granulated fused silica was found using Sellmeier constants for solid fused silica; granulation affects density.

    • Calculated n for water is for λ of 589.29 nm

    • Calculated n for NaCl is for λ of 589 nm


Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

  • Dave Besson

  • Marie Piasecki

  • Carolyn Bandle


Surface wave propagation preliminary work developing a method for surface wave detection

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