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Catalyst - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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1. How are frequency and wavelength related? They are INVERSELY related. As one goes UP, the other goes DOWN!. Catalyst. 2. What are the 3 primary colors of light? When combined, what do they create? RED, BLUE, GREEN. Create WHITE light!. 3. Draw a convex and concave lens. Magnets!.

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1. How are frequency and wavelength related? They are INVERSELY related. As one goes UP, the other goes DOWN!


2. What are the 3 primary colors of light? When combined, what do they create? RED, BLUE, GREEN. Create WHITE light!

3. Draw a convex and concave lens.

a little intro
A little intro…

Properties of Magnets

  • A magnet is any material that exerts a magnetic force.
  • Magnets attract or repel other magnets.
  • One part of a magnet will always point north when allowed to swing freely

Magnetic Fields

  • The magnetic field is the area of magnetic force around a magnet
    • Allows magnets to interact without touching
  • Magnetic field lines are the invisible lines that map out the magnetic field of a magnet
    • Form complete loops, never cross
    • Always leave north and enter south
    • Distance between field lines indicate the strength of the magnet
      • Closer the lines, stronger the lines

Magnetic Domains

  • A magnetic domain is a region where the magnetic fields of all atoms are lined up in one direction
  • If the material is NOT magnetized, the magnetic domain points in random directions
  • If the material is considered a magnet, the magnetic domains are arranged in the same direction

Magnetic Materials

  • A ferromagnetic material is a material that shows strong magnetic properties
    • Behaves like a piece of iron
    • Iron, nickel, cobalt, samarium
  • Alloy magnets - magnets made from several different metals
    • Alnico - aluminum, nickel, iron, cobalt
    • Platinum and cobalt
  • Ferrite - mixture of substances that contain ferromagnetic elements
    • Most commonly used today
    • Brittle material but inexpensive

Making Magnets

  • Unmagnetized material can be magnetized by:
    • Placing an unmagnetized ferromagnetic material in a strong magnetic field
    • Rubbing the material with one pole of a magnet
  • Magnetizing a paper clip
    • Rub the paperclip in one direction along one pole of the magnet
    • Magnetic field of the magnet causes some domains in the paperclip to line up.

Destroying Magnets

  • Temporary magnet is a magnet made from a material that easily loses its magnetism
  • Permanent magnet is a magnet made from a material that keeps its magnetism for a long time
  • No magnet can last forever
  • Ways to demagnetize magnets
    • Drop it
    • Strike it
    • Heat it

Breaking Magnets

  • Break a magnet in half and you will have two smaller magnets
  • Each smaller magnet has its own north pole and south pole
  • Magnetic poles are lined up in one direction, which will remain even if the magnet is broken



static electricity
Static Electricity
  • The buildup of charges on an object is called static electricity
  • Static discharge is the movement of charges from one object to another.
    • Think of this like shocking yourself when you drag your feet on the carpet and touch a door handle.
    • You feel the “shock.”
    • What you really experienced is static discharge.
    • Lightning is also a discharge of static electricity!
a message from bill nye
A Message from…Bill Nye
how are charges transferred
How are charges transferred?

3 ways:

  • Friction – rub 2 objects together
  • Conduction – direct contact (touching)
  • Induction – without touching
    • Van der Graaff is a GREAT example!
a message from our sponsor
A message from our sponsor
electric current
Electric Current
  • Electric current is the continuous flow of electric charges (electrons) through a material.
  • Measured in amps (A)
  • Amps = amount of charge flowing past a given point each second.
  • AC = Alternating Current (runs in BOTH directions)
  • DC = Direct Current

(runs in ONE direction)

conductors and insulators
Conductors and Insulators
  • A conductor is a material through which charges can flow easily.
  • An insulator is a material through which charges cannot flow easily.
  • In order for electric current to exist, a circuit must first exist.
  • An electric circuit is a complete, unbroken path through which electric charges can flow.
  • Potential energy is capacity to do work.
  • Batteries provide electrical potential energy
  • Voltage is the difference in electrical potential energy between two places.
    • This can also be called potential difference
    • Voltage causes current in an electric circuit
    • Basically, it is the amount of force pushing an electric current
    • Measured in Volts (V)
  • Resistance is the measure of how difficult it is for charges to flow through a material.
  • Increase the resistance, decrease the current
  • Measured in ohms
  • Best Wire = SHORT, FAT, COLD!
  • Insulators = HIGH resistance
  • Conductors = LOW resistance
electric current magnetism
Electric Current & Magnetism
  • Wherever there is electricity, there is magnetism
  • An electric current produces a magnetic field
  • This relationship is called electromagnetism
parts of an electromagnet
Parts of an Electromagnet

Wire to wrap around the core, preferably made of copper. We call this wire a SOLENOID!

Ferromagnetic material for a core, like a nail

Energy Source like a battery

Common Examples: credit cards, doorbells, radios, cranes, refrigerators, computer hard drives, VHS tapes, microwaves, etc.

benefits of electromagnets
Benefits of Electromagnets
  • It can be turned on and off
  • It can have its direction reversed
  • We have control over the strength
how can we manipulate electromagnets
How can we manipulate Electromagnets?
  • Change the number of coils of the solenoid.
    • More coils = stronger
    • Less coils = weaker
  • Change the ferromagnetic core
    • More iron = stronger
    • Less iron = weaker
  • Change the source
    • Higher voltage = stronger
    • Lower voltage = weaker
apply it
Apply it??
  • Kinda Creepy??
  • James Bond?
  • Boom??
introduction and overview
Introduction and Overview
series circuit
Series Circuit
  • Only ONE path.
  • Resistance is constant.
  • If one bulb goes out, the entire strand goes out.
  • The more lights you add, the dimmer the strand becomes.
  • The resistance is shared equally.
series circuit1
Series Circuit
  • Benefit: safety switch
  • Drawback: a DC flow (direct current in ONE direction)
  • Examples: security systems, OLD Christmas lights
parallel circuit
Parallel Circuit
  • Multiple paths for current to flow.
  • Resistance varies.
  • Light may shine brighter based on resistance.
  • Bulbs will stay lit even when a light burns out or breaks.
parallel circuit1
Parallel Circuit
  • Benefits: very controllable; more dependable
  • Drawbacks: voltage and resistance vary, harder to turn off due to being an AC flow (alternating current)
  • Examples: wiring in your home, NEW Christmas lights
side by side
Side by Side



series and parallel circuits game
Series and Parallel Circuits Game