Catalyst

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# Catalyst - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1. How are frequency and wavelength related? They are INVERSELY related. As one goes UP, the other goes DOWN!. Catalyst. 2. What are the 3 primary colors of light? When combined, what do they create? RED, BLUE, GREEN. Create WHITE light!. 3. Draw a convex and concave lens. Magnets!.

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Presentation Transcript

1. How are frequency and wavelength related? They are INVERSELY related. As one goes UP, the other goes DOWN!

### Catalyst

2. What are the 3 primary colors of light? When combined, what do they create? RED, BLUE, GREEN. Create WHITE light!

3. Draw a convex and concave lens.

### Magnets!

A little intro…
• http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/kids/cartoons-tv-movies-kids/i-didnt-know-that-kids/idkt-magnets-kids/

Properties of Magnets

• A magnet is any material that exerts a magnetic force.
• Magnets attract or repel other magnets.
• One part of a magnet will always point north when allowed to swing freely

Magnetic Fields

• The magnetic field is the area of magnetic force around a magnet
• Allows magnets to interact without touching
• Magnetic field lines are the invisible lines that map out the magnetic field of a magnet
• Form complete loops, never cross
• Always leave north and enter south
• Distance between field lines indicate the strength of the magnet
• Closer the lines, stronger the lines

Magnetic Domains

• A magnetic domain is a region where the magnetic fields of all atoms are lined up in one direction
• If the material is NOT magnetized, the magnetic domain points in random directions
• If the material is considered a magnet, the magnetic domains are arranged in the same direction

Magnetic Materials

• A ferromagnetic material is a material that shows strong magnetic properties
• Behaves like a piece of iron
• Iron, nickel, cobalt, samarium
• Alloy magnets - magnets made from several different metals
• Alnico - aluminum, nickel, iron, cobalt
• Platinum and cobalt
• Ferrite - mixture of substances that contain ferromagnetic elements
• Most commonly used today
• Brittle material but inexpensive

Making Magnets

• Unmagnetized material can be magnetized by:
• Placing an unmagnetized ferromagnetic material in a strong magnetic field
• Rubbing the material with one pole of a magnet
• Magnetizing a paper clip
• Rub the paperclip in one direction along one pole of the magnet
• Magnetic field of the magnet causes some domains in the paperclip to line up.

Destroying Magnets

• Temporary magnet is a magnet made from a material that easily loses its magnetism
• Permanent magnet is a magnet made from a material that keeps its magnetism for a long time
• No magnet can last forever
• Ways to demagnetize magnets
• Drop it
• Strike it
• Heat it

Breaking Magnets

• Break a magnet in half and you will have two smaller magnets
• Each smaller magnet has its own north pole and south pole
• Magnetic poles are lined up in one direction, which will remain even if the magnet is broken

S

N

### Electricity

Static Electricity
• The buildup of charges on an object is called static electricity
• Static discharge is the movement of charges from one object to another.
• Think of this like shocking yourself when you drag your feet on the carpet and touch a door handle.
• You feel the “shock.”
• What you really experienced is static discharge.
• Lightning is also a discharge of static electricity!
A Message from…Bill Nye
How are charges transferred?

3 ways:

• Friction – rub 2 objects together
• Conduction – direct contact (touching)
• Induction – without touching
• Van der Graaff is a GREAT example!

### Electric Currents

Electric Current
• Electric current is the continuous flow of electric charges (electrons) through a material.
• Measured in amps (A)
• Amps = amount of charge flowing past a given point each second.
• AC = Alternating Current (runs in BOTH directions)
• DC = Direct Current

(runs in ONE direction)

Conductors and Insulators
• A conductor is a material through which charges can flow easily.
• An insulator is a material through which charges cannot flow easily.
Circuits
• In order for electric current to exist, a circuit must first exist.
• An electric circuit is a complete, unbroken path through which electric charges can flow.
Voltage
• Potential energy is capacity to do work.
• Batteries provide electrical potential energy
• Voltage is the difference in electrical potential energy between two places.
• This can also be called potential difference
• Voltage causes current in an electric circuit
• Basically, it is the amount of force pushing an electric current
• Measured in Volts (V)
Resistance
• Resistance is the measure of how difficult it is for charges to flow through a material.
• Increase the resistance, decrease the current
• Measured in ohms
• Best Wire = SHORT, FAT, COLD!
• Insulators = HIGH resistance
• Conductors = LOW resistance

### Electromagnetism

Electric Current & Magnetism
• Wherever there is electricity, there is magnetism
• An electric current produces a magnetic field
• This relationship is called electromagnetism
Parts of an Electromagnet

Wire to wrap around the core, preferably made of copper. We call this wire a SOLENOID!

Ferromagnetic material for a core, like a nail

Energy Source like a battery

Common Examples: credit cards, doorbells, radios, cranes, refrigerators, computer hard drives, VHS tapes, microwaves, etc.

Benefits of Electromagnets
• It can be turned on and off
• It can have its direction reversed
• We have control over the strength
How can we manipulate Electromagnets?
• Change the number of coils of the solenoid.
• More coils = stronger
• Less coils = weaker
• Change the ferromagnetic core
• More iron = stronger
• Less iron = weaker
• Change the source
• Higher voltage = stronger
• Lower voltage = weaker
Apply it??
• Kinda Creepy?? http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/40183-mythbusters-electromagnetic-turkey-video.htm
• James Bond? http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/32911-mythbusters-clips-electromagnetic-watch-video.htm
• Boom?? http://science.howstuffworks.com/7102-electromagnetic-pulse-bomb-video.htm

### Series and Parallel Circuits

Introduction and Overview
Series Circuit
• Only ONE path.
• Resistance is constant.
• If one bulb goes out, the entire strand goes out.
• The more lights you add, the dimmer the strand becomes.
• The resistance is shared equally.
Series Circuit
• Benefit: safety switch
• Drawback: a DC flow (direct current in ONE direction)
• Examples: security systems, OLD Christmas lights
Parallel Circuit
• Multiple paths for current to flow.
• Resistance varies.
• Light may shine brighter based on resistance.
• Bulbs will stay lit even when a light burns out or breaks.
Parallel Circuit
• Benefits: very controllable; more dependable
• Drawbacks: voltage and resistance vary, harder to turn off due to being an AC flow (alternating current)
• Examples: wiring in your home, NEW Christmas lights
Side by Side

Series

Parallel

Series and Parallel Circuits Game
• http://scienceofeverydaylife.discoveryeducation.com/views/other.cfm?guidAssetId=D1507F6E-09C3-4E7B-B1E9-16708E402009