Plankton Culture for Feeding Larval Fish. Introduction. You’ve got larval fish!! Good job!! Now what?? If you’ve researched then it shouldn’t be a big deal, because you’re ready to feed those little critters!
Species Protein Fat Carb Ash
Chaetoceros muelleri 35 30 20 15
Pavlora virdis 60 16 16 8
Tetraselmus tetratheie 30 5 27 38
Isochrysis galbana 46 22 22 10
Species EPA % Total n-3 FA %
Nannochloropsisoculata 30.5 42.7
Pavloralutheir 13.8 23.5
Skeletonemacostatum 13.8 15.5
Isochrysisgalbana 3.5 22.5
Isochrysisaffgalbana 0.5 3.3
produces 10 tons of protein
(wheat only gets you 0.16 tons)
Spirulina is a single-celled, spiral-shaped blue-green microalgae. Highly digestible food, 60% vegetable protein, which is predigested by the algae. It is higher in protein than any other food. 1 tsp of Spirulina contains 280% DV Beta Carotene, 110% B12, 15% Iron, 2% Calcium and no fat. Its outstanding nutritional profile also includes the essential fatty acids, GLA fatty acid, lipids, the nucleic acids (RNA and DNA), B complex, vitamin C and E and phytochemicals, such as carotenoids, chlorophyll (blood purifier), and phycocyanin (a blue pigment), which is a protein that is known to inhibit cancer. The carotenoids and chlorophyll may also contribute to Spirulina's anticancer and apparent immunogenic effects. Spirulina is two to six times richer in B12 than its nearest rival, raw beef liver. Spirulina is 58 times richer than raw spinach in iron. Spirulina is nature's richest whole-food source of Vitamin E. It's 3 times richer than raw wheat germ and its biological activity is 49% greater than synthetic vitamin E. Spirulina is nature's richest whole-food source of Beta-Carotene (Pro Vitamin A). It's 25 times richer than raw carrots. Unlike the preformed vitamin A of synthetics and fish liver oils, beta-carotene is completely nontoxic even in mega doses. Spirulina is nature's richest whole-food source of Antioxidants. It contains a spectrum of every natural antioxidant known, including: the antioxidant vitamins B-1 and B-6; the minerals zinc, manganese and copper; the amino acid methionine; and the superantioxidants beta-carotene, vitamin E and trace element selenium. Spirulina is nature's richest whole-food source of Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA). Its oils are 3 times richer in GLA than evening primrose oil. Studies have indicated that GLA helps lower blood cholesterol and high blood pressure and eases such conditions as arthritis, premenstrual pain, eczema and other skin conditions. Spirulina is nature's richest whole-food source of Chlorophyll - many times richer than alfalfa or wheat grass! Spirulina is nature's richest whole-food source of Complete High-Biological Value Protein: Spirulina - 60-70% Soybeans - 30-35% Beef - 18-22% Eggs - 12-16% Tofu - 8% Milk - 3%
--BOTTOM LINE, IT’S GOOD STUFF!!
Ct = C0 x emt
3. Phase micro-algae (modified from Anonymous, 1991).of declining growth rate
Cell division slows down when nutrients, light, pH, carbon dioxide or other physical and chemical factors begin to limit growth.
4. Stationary phase
In the fourth stage the limiting factor and the growth rate are balanced, which results in a relatively constant cell density.
5. Death or “crash” phase
During the final stage, water quality deteriorates and nutrients are depleted to a level incapable of sustaining growth. Cell density decreases rapidly and the culture eventually collapses.
Nutrient depletion Oxygen deficiency
Overheating pH disturbance
All of the above
Table 2.6. Advantages and disadvantages of various algal culture techniques.
Figure 2.8. culture techniques.
Carboy culture apparatus
Turbidostat culture: Algal concentration (cell density) is kept at a preset level by diluting the culture with fresh medium by means of an automatic system.
Chemostat culture: Fresh medium is introduced
into the culture at a steady, predetermined rate.
Addition of a limiting vital nutrient (e.g. nitrate) at
a fixed rate is also required. This way the growth
rate and not the cell density is kept constant.
Peak Algae Density culture techniques.
10-12 million cells/ml
2 wk stability
4 million cells/ml
5 day stability
Count total in centermost 1 mm
Multiply by 10,000
Product = number/mlCell Counts
Motile cells should be killed
Algae Density culture techniques.
Wk 1 = 50,000 cells/ml
Wk 2+ = 100,000 cells/ml
Onset of spatting = 200,000/ml
Tank cleared in 24hrs
5-10 larvae/mlHarvest and Feeding to Fry
Liters to feed = (TD x V)/CD
TD = Target Density (1,000s/ml)
V = Volume of larval tank (thousands of L)
CD = Cell Density (millions/ml)
Purchase pure strain culture techniques.
Half filed container
1 drop/wk for T. pseudonana
1 drop/2 wk for I. galbanaStock Culture