Day six supporting your speech materials more
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Day Six: Supporting Your Speech: Materials & more. by Yana Cornish Hamilton College. Agenda:. Supporting Materials (Ch. 7) Types of supporting materials (Ch. 8) Activity. Homework: . Read chapters 7 & 8 Do suggested activity p. 165 Select a video speech and provide its analysis.

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Day six supporting your speech materials more

Day Six: Supporting Your Speech: Materials & more

by

Yana Cornish

Hamilton College


Agenda

Agenda:

  • Supporting Materials (Ch. 7)

  • Types of supporting materials (Ch. 8)

  • Activity


Homework

Homework:

  • Read chapters 7 & 8

  • Do suggested activity p. 165

  • Select a video speech and provide its analysis.

  • Perfect your introduction and conclusion

  • Continue selecting supporting materials for your first speech

  • Continue putting together biographical information


Supporting material

Supporting Material

  • Ideas, opinions, and information that help to explain a presentation’s main idea and purpose.

  • The best presenters use a mix of many different kinds of supporting material


What materials to use

What Materials to Use?

  • Facts

  • Illustrations (verbal or visual)

  • Descriptions & explanations

  • Definitions

  • Analogies

  • Statistics

  • Opinions

  • Examples

  • Stories

  • Testimonies


What materials to use1

What Materials to Use?

  • Fact - verifiable observation, experience, or event known to be true

    • Most effective when the audience can accept them as true

  • Illustrations (verbal or visual):

    • Brief illustration – a short example (a sentence or two)

    • Extended illustration – a detailed example


What materials to use2

What Materials to Use?

  • Descriptions & explanations:

    • Description – detailed mental images of people, concepts, or things.

    • Explanation – a statement that makes clear how something is done or why it exists.

    • They offer causes, effects, characteristics, and background information.

  • Definition– explanations or clarifications of a word’s meaning.


What materials to use3

What Materials to Use?

  • Analogy – a comparison of unfamiliar concepts or objects with familiar ones.

    • can be alike or different

  • Examples:

    • Alike: America is like a quilt- many patches, pieces, colors, and sizes, all woven and held together by a common thread.

    • Different: If a copilot must be qualified to fly a plane, then a U.S. Vice President should be qualified to govern the country.


What materials to use4

What Materials to Use?

  • Statistics – systematically collected and numerically classified information.

    -only factual if analyzed correctly

  • Opinion– a statement made by an individual

  • Examples- provides a reference to a specific case or instance in order to make an idea understandable.

    • can be facts, brief descriptions, or detailed stories


What materials to use5

What Materials to Use?

  • Stories-accounts or reports about things that have happened.

    • Can have a great impact on the audience

    • Use stories to gain attention, create a mood, or reinforce an important idea.


What materials to use6

What Materials to Use?

  • Testimony- statements or opinions that someone has said or written in magazines, speeches, on the radio, books, etc.

    • Believability depends on the credentials of the speaker or writer, so use testimony from famous people and experts to enhance your credibility.

    • Expert testimony – an opinion offered by someone who is an authority on the subject.

    • Lay testimony – an opinion offered by a nonexpert who has firsthand experience.


How to choose good materials

How to choose good materials:

  • Magnitude – bigger is better!

  • Proximity – the most relevant to the listeners (‘closest to home’)

  • Concreteness – use concrete examples and statistics

  • Variety – use a mix!

  • Humor – audience will appreciate it!

  • Suitability of material – to you, your speech, your audience, and occasion.


Search for supporting materials

Search for Supporting materials

  • Start with your own knowledge

  • Internet/WWW:

    • To supplement library sources, not replace them

    • Directories

    • Search engines

      • Alta Vistawww.altavista.com

      • Googlewww.google.com

      • Yahoo!www.yahoo.com

      • Lycoswww.lycos.com

      • Dogpilewww.dogpile.com


Search engine

Search Engine


Directory

Directory:


Supporting materials

Supporting materials:

  • Library resources:

    • Books

    • Periodicals

    • Full-text Databases

    • Government documents

    • Reference resources (maps, encyclopedias, etc.)

    • Special services (interlibrary loan)


Supporting materials1

Supporting materials:

  • Interviews:

    • Needs to be set up

    • Requires planning

    • Can provide very useful information

  • Special groups/organizations


Important questions for interviews

Important Questions for Interviews

  • Why am I conducting this interview? What do I hope to learn?

  • What do I know about the person I’m interviewing?

  • What do I want or need to know for my presentation?

  • In what order should I ask the questions?


Evaluating your sources

Evaluating Your Sources

  • Is the source identifiable and credible?

    • Are the author and publisher identified and reputable?

  • Example: Which is more respected and reputable?

    • The National Inquirer or

    • The Wall Street Journal

  • Is the source biased?

    • Is the information slanted in one direction so much that it isn’t fair?


Evaluating your sources1

Evaluating Your Sources

  • Is the information recent?

    • When was the information collected and published? Use magazines, web sources, etc. for current events.

  • Is the information consistent?

    • Is the information similar to other information on the same subject?

  • Are the statistics valid?

    • Use sophisticated research methods to provide valid statistics and information.


Questions for determining validity

Questions for Determining Validity

  • Who collected and analyzed the data?

  • Is the researcher a well-respected expert?

  • How was the information collected and analyzed?

  • Who is reporting the statistics: the researcher or a reporter?

  • Are the statistics believable?


Record your sources

Record Your Sources

  • Make a bibliography card, recording all relevant information for each source you intend to use.

  • Make copies of the material you will use

  • Save material you find online by printing it, emailing it to yourself, or saving it to a disk.


Record your sources1

Record Your Sources

  • Read the copies you have made carefully

  • Take careful notes on information related to your paper topic.

  • Distinguish exact quotations from summaries and record all page numbers.


Cite your sources

Cite Your Sources

  • In writing (bibliography) and/or orally during your speech

    In Writing (bibliography):

  • Must include author, title, publisher, and date

  • There should be no question which words are yours and which words belong to other people.

  • Not necessary for facts regarded as common knowledge (available in many sources), such as chronological events, author’s birth date...


Cite your sources cont

Cite Your Sources (cont.)

  • If you are not sure, cite your sources!

  • Cite all supporting material unless it is common knowledge.

  • Cite someone else’s ideas and opinions, even if you restate it in your own words.


Citing your sources orally

Citing Your Sources Orally

  • Provide sufficient information to allow others to find your source, don’t read the whole citation.

  • Provide the name of the person, saying a word or two about their credentials, and mentioning the source (or title) of the information.


Citing directly or paraphrasing

Directly:

In a 1988 article published by English Journal, Dr. James Stalker described the absurdity of adopting an official language for the United States. He wrote: “We cannot…”

Paraphrasing:

In a 1988 article published by English Journal, Dr. James Stalker noted that in a Democracy like ours, we cannot pass laws against the use of other languages.

Citing: Directly or Paraphrasing


Supporting materials2

Supporting materials:

  • How to develop a bibliography:

    • In alphabetical order at the end of the speech outline

    • Author’s name

    • Title of the article (book)

    • Title of the book/website

    • Date of publication (date when accessed if it is a web site)

    • Publisher (books only)


Outline review see pp 32 33

Outline Review (see pp. 32-33):

  • Topic

  • General and Specific Purposes: at the end of the speech…

  • Central idea

  • Description:

    • Introduction (write your statement)

    • Body (structure only)

    • Conclusion (write your statement)


Homework1

Homework:

  • Read chapters 7 & 8

  • Do suggested activity p. 165

  • Select a video speech and provide its analysis.

  • Perfect your introduction and conclusion

  • Continue selecting supporting materials for your first speech

  • Continue putting together biographical information


Day six supporting your speech materials more

Questions?


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