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Lecture Outline.  Code Switching Language Choice  Conversation Structure Grice’s Principles of Conversation  Cross-Cultural Differences  Conclusion.

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Lecture Outline

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Lecture outline

Lecture Outline

 Code Switching

Language Choice

 Conversation Structure

Grice’s Principles of Conversation

 Cross-Cultural Differences

 Conclusion

Trudgill, Peter. 2000. Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books, Chapter 6.

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Code switching

Code Switching

Code Switching

Using two languages in the same utterance (in same sentence or different sentence)

Language Choice

Selecting a language to use based on context

Trudgill, Peter. 2000. Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books, pp. 105-106.

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Code switching english and spanish

Code Switching English and Spanish

Talking about quitting smoking:

"I didn't quit, I just stopped. I mean it wasn't an effort I made que voy a dejar de fumar porque me hace dano o this or that. I used to pull butts out of the wastepaper basket. I'd get desperate, y ahi voy al basurero a buscar, a sacar, you know?"

Trudgill, Peter. 2000. Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books, pp. 105-106.

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Why code switch

Why Code-Switch?

 For emphasis

 When quoting someone who is speaking the other language

 Maybe to hide something from people who do not speak the other language

 Can express oneself better

 Increases intimacy (according to Trudgill)

 Signal more than one IDENTITY at one time

Trudgill, Peter. 2000. Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books, p. 106.

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Lecture outline

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Language choice in kampala uganda

Language Choice in Kampala, Uganda

Social Situation

Tenants' association meetings

Housing EstateLanguage

More prestige English/Luganda

Less prestigeEnglish/Swahili

Trudgill, Peter. 2000. Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books, p. 107.

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Complex switching in uganda 1

Complex Switching in Uganda 1

Participants

1. Young man from Kenya (ethnic Bantu)

2. Another young Kenyan (different native language)

3. Older Ugandan (ethnic Bantu) (with senior post)

Trudgill, Peter. 2000. Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books, pp. 107-108.

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Complex switching in uganda 2

Complex Switching in Uganda 2

Topic / Participants

Two young Kenyans (1&2) working in Uganda

1&2: Young man's job loss; problems of Kenyans in general in Uganda

—Swahili (language of their status as equals and their fraternal relationship)

1&2: Boasting about money or young women

—probably English

Trudgill, Peter. 2000. Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books, pp. 107-108.

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Complex switching in uganda 3

Complex Switching in Uganda 3

Topic / Participants

Young Kenyan (1) and older Ugandan (3)

1&3: Young man wants help getting a job

— 1 Tries Luganda (language of deference)

— 3 switches to English (1 speaks Luganda poorly)

— 1 Goes back to Luganda (1 asks for favor)

Trudgill, Peter. 2000. Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books, pp. 107-108.

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Some rules or principles of conversation

Some Rules or Principles of Conversation

1. Turn-Taking

2. Right to Speak

3. When interruptions are allowed

4. Obligation to Speak

5. Introducing New Topics

6. Sequences are structured too

Trudgill, Peter. 2000. Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books, pp. 109-110.

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Silence

Silence

"It has been said that, in a conversation between two English speakers who are not close friends, a silence of longer than about four seconds is not allowed (which means that people become embarrassed if nothing is said after that time—they feel obliged to say something, even if it is only a remark about the weather.)"

Trudgill, Peter. 2000. Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books, p. 109. Emphasis added.

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Two views of silence in conversations 1

Two Views of Silence in Conversations 1

Scenario 1:Corunna El Man, who has just arrived from their home planet Dorsai, is talking to Michael de Sandoval, another Dorsai who has been stationed on the planet Ceta for some time.

"Your father and mother are well—and I hear your brothers are all right, out among the stars," I said. "But, of course, you know that."

"No," he said, still watching the sky ahead. "I haven't heard for quite a while."

A silence threatened.

"How did you happen to end up here?" I asked. It was almost a ritual question between Dorsais away from home.

Dickson, Gordon R. 1993. Lost Dorsai. New York: A Tom Doherty Associates Book., p. 12.

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Two views of silence in conversations 2

Two Views of Silence in Conversations 2

Scenario 2:Two native American (Indian) friends who have addiction problems greet each other.

“You still using that shit [the drug/medicine Ritalin]?”

“You still drinking that shit [bourbon]?”

It was an old ritual from our support group, but today’s sarcasm had no bite. A wasp circled the uneaten pizza, its buzz, buzz the only sound for several minutes. You get used to silence on the Rez [American Indian reservation]. Nobody chatters just to escape silence, the way they do in cities or on TV. Silence is okay, silence is a way of life.

Cole, David. 2000. Butterfly Lost. New York: HarperCollins Publishers Inc, pp. 61-62.

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Rules of conversation grice s cooperative principle

Rules of Conversation: Grice’s Cooperative Principle

Contribute positively to achieving the goals of the conversation you are involved in.

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Rules of conversation grice s maxims

Rules of Conversation: Grice’s Maxims

Quality: Tell the truth (or try to)

B. Quantity: Say enough, but not too much

C. Relevance: Be relevant

D. Manner: Be clear, be brief, be orderly

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Acknowledging breaking the rules

Acknowledging Breaking the Rules

When we break a rule, we might say:

 'I'm sorry to interrupt‘

 'On a completely different topic‘

 'To go back to what we were talking about before‘

 'Just let me think about that for a minute‘

Trudgill, Peter. 2000. Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books, p. 109.

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Differences in sociolinguistic rules across cultures

Differences in Sociolinguistic Rules across Cultures

NA Indians European Americans

Silence

FrenchAmericans

Telephone Etiquette

Chinese Americans

Asking about salaries *

IndiansAmericans

Thanking behavior *

[* not in Trudgill]

Trudgill, Peter. 2000. Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books, pp. 113-115.

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Intracultural differences in conversational styles men and women

Intracultural Differences in Conversational Styles—Men and Women—

"The American sociolinguist Deborah Tannen has suggested that in many respects communication between men and women can be regarded as cross-cultural communication, at least in North America and Europe, though also, one suspects, elsewhere."

Trudgill, Peter. 2000. Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books, p. 115.

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Tannen s view of gender differences

Tannen’s View of Gender Differences

MenWomen

Competition Cooperation

Interrupting Overlapping

Directness Indirectness

Trudgill, Peter. 2000. Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books, p. 115.

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Lecture summary 1

Lecture Summary 1

1. Code Switching

 RULE Based—NOT 隨便

 Gives us lots of options for expressing ourselves (for example,switching to signal identities [among other things])

Trudgill, Peter. 2000. Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books, Chapter 6.

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Lecture summary 2

Lecture Summary 2

2. Conversation Structure

 Existence of RULES / NORMS

 Knowledge of RULES

 Rules include Grice’s rules

 Expectations of participants to follow the RULES

Trudgill, Peter. 2000. Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books, Chapter 6.

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Lecture summary 3

Lecture Summary 3

3. Cross-Cultural / Intercultural Differences

 DON'T JUDGE  (Hard to do)

 Help us avoid misunderstanding

 Help us avoid giving offense

 Help us avoid taking offense

Trudgill, Peter. 2000. Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books, Chapter 6.

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