American history
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 37

CH. 15-3 POLITICS IN THE GILDED AGE PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 93 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

AMERICAN HISTORY. CH. 15-3 POLITICS IN THE GILDED AGE. POLITICAL MACHINES. Before the Civil War, most cities were small and easily managed by part-time politicians Late 1800s – part-time politicians were losing control of their cities

Download Presentation

CH. 15-3 POLITICS IN THE GILDED AGE

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


American history

AMERICAN HISTORY

CH. 15-3 POLITICS IN THE GILDED AGE


Political machines

POLITICAL MACHINES

  • Before the Civil War, most cities were small and easily managed by part-time politicians

  • Late 1800s – part-time politicians were losing control of their cities

  • POLITICAL MACHINE—an informal group of professional politicians who controlled local government


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • Political machines often resorted to corrupt methods

  • IMMIGRANTS AND POLITICAL MACHINES

  • Political machines made a special effort to reach out to immigrants

  • They helped newcomers find jobs or housing


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • They supplied coal in the winter and provided turkeys for holiday dinners

  • They helped immigrants become naturalized citizens

  • In return for this help, politicians expected the people they assisted would vote for them and rally broader community support.

  • James Pendergast—popular Kansas City, MO politician


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • He gained loyalty of local immigrants by giving money to those in need

  • He ran for ALDERMAN (city council) and soon controlled Kansas City politics

  • Stephen Powers and James B. Wells, Jr. set up a machine in Cameron County, TX in the 1870s

  • In exchange for votes, they helped Mexican Americans with costs of weddings, funerals, and living expenses


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • Immigrants also became part of the political machine

  • Irish Americans rose through the ranks of the Boston political machine

  • Two second-generation Irish immigrants even became mayor: John F. Fitzgerald (JFK’s grandfather) & James Michael Curley


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • CORRUPTION

  • Political machines used illegal tactics to maintain control

  • Machine bosses bought votes with jobs and favors

  • Election fraud

  • People were hired to vote, change their appearance (different clothes or haircut, etc.) and then they would vote again


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • Many politicians practiced GRAFT – using their position to gain money and power dishonestly

  • THE TWEED RING

  • The most notorious political machine was Tammany Hall, which ran the democratic Party in NYC.


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • 1863—William Marcy Tweed became the powerful head of Tammany Hall

  • Boss Tweed used his position to acquire riches

  • Ex. – The city paid $13 million to build a new court house which was several times the actual cost

  • Tweed and associates pocketed the difference.


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • Tweed controlled elections, corrupt judges, and big business in the city

  • His power was unbreakable until 1871

  • A new bookkeeper gave information to the NY Times newspaper proving how much Tweed had stolen

  • A cartoonist, Thomas Nast, published artwork about Tweed in Harper’s Weekly magazine. Tweed demanded the cartoons be stopped.


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • 1873—Tweed convicted of fraud and corruption and sentenced to 12 years in jail

  • Tweed escaped but was located in Spain and put back in jail

  • 1878—Tweed died in a NY City jail


Federal corruption

FEDERAL CORRUPTION

  • The dominant image of government in the late 1800s was a smoke-filled back room

  • SCANDALS OF THE GRANT ADMINISTRATION

  • 1869—Ulysses S. Grant becomes President

  • Several scandals during his administration

  • 1860s—The Credit Mobilier scandal


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • Union Pacific railroad set up a construction company called Credit Mobilier to build part of the transcontinental railroad

  • Credit Mobilier charged taxpayers $23 million more than it actually cost

  • The extra money went into bank accounts of Union Pacific and Credit Mobilier

  • 1872—NY Sun revealed that Credit Mobilier had given stock to members of Congress and even Vice President Schuyler Colfax


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • 1875—A new treasury secretary revealed a conspiracy to divert tax collections into private hands

  • The Whiskey Ring, a group that included Grant’s private secretary, whiskey distributors, and distillers, and government officials, stole millions of dollars of taxpayers’ money

  • Whiskey producers paid bribes to government officials


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • In return liquor tax money was kept by producers instead of going into the U.S. treasury

  • PRESIDENT HAYES AND REFORM

  • Reformers wanted to end fraud under the spoils system

  • Rutherford B. Hayes became President in 1877 and wanted reform


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • Executive Order—government officials could not manage political parties or campaigns

  • NY Customs House—corrupt Republicans controlled the jobs and ignored Hayes’ order

  • They were fired

  • STALWARTS—lead by Roscoe Conkling—wanted to continue the spoils system


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • 1880—Hayes decides not run for a 2nd term. Republicans compromise on James A. Garfield

  • GARFIELD’S SHORT PRESIDENCY

  • Garfield wins election but angers Stalwarts

  • He did not give Conkling a cabinet appointment

  • July 1881—Garfield is shot at a Washington, DC train station


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • The President died in September 1881

  • The assassin was Charles Guiteau—an unstable character who had been denied a government job

  • Guiteau thought he was helping the Stalwarts by killing Garfield but the opposite happened

  • Chester A. Arthur becomes President

  • Arthur supported the Stalwarts initially but now turned against the spoils system


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • President Arthur (R) operated independently of the Republican Party

  • 1883—Pendleton Civil Service Act – Promotions must be based on merit, not political connections

  • Only applied to 10% of the federal workforce

  • Important first step

  • To Be Continued…


The populist movement

THE POPULIST MOVEMENT

  • Calls for reform started coming from farmers

  • FARMERS’ HARDSHIPS

  • Late 1800s – crop prices falling

  • Farmers had borrowed large sums of money for equipment

  • 24 acres of cotton in 1894 was worth LESS than 9 acres of cotton in 1873


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • Farmers had increased trouble paying their debts

  • Railroads charged enormous fees to transport crops to market

  • Smallest farmers had to pay the highest rates

  • Everybody making money at the farmer’s expense: farm equipment seller, banks, railroads

  • Farmers that worked every day were nearly penniless


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • THE NATIONAL GRANGE

  • Farmers decided to organize themselves

  • Groups provided emergency aid and other assistance

  • Local groups combined to form national organizations

  • First major group—Order of Patrons of Husbandry (aka National Grange)


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • Founded by Oliver Hudson Kelley in 1867

  • Farmers after the Civil War were downtrodden and needed to be supported

  • The Grange tried to unite farmers and eliminate regional rivalries

  • Within a few years, membership exploded

  • Farmers realized they had to fight railroads, grain elevators


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • Late 1870s—Grange succeeded in persuading state legislatures in IL, IA, MN, WI to regulate railroads and grain elevators

  • Businesses opposed regulation because it hurt their profits

  • 1877—Munn v. Illinois – Supreme Court decided state legislatures had the right to regulate businesses that involved the public interest


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • 1886—Wabash v. Illinois—Supreme Court ruled that the federal government had the power to regulate railroad traffic moving across state boundaries

  • Interstate Commerce Act of 1887—first time for federal regulation of any industry

  • ICA wanted to make rates fair for all customers

  • Large shippers were no longer given favorable rates


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • Railroads forbidden from charging more for short hauls than long hauls along the same rail line

  • Interstate Commerce Commission created to regulate railroads

  • Congress did not give ICC power to enforce regulations until 1906


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • THE ALLIANCE MOVEMENT

  • Other farmers formed organizations in TX and NY

  • These groups combine to form the Farmers’ Alliance

  • Helped farmers with practical needs—buying equipment or marketing farm products


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • 1890—1 million+ farmers are members from different regions

  • Leaders of the Southern Alliance restricted their membership to whites

  • African Americans formed the Colored Farmers’ Alliance in 1890 (>1 million members)

  • This group also fought prejudice


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • THE MONEY SUPPLY ISSUE

  • Farmers’ Alliance wanted the money supply to increase (have the government print more money)

  • More money in circulation would inflate prices

  • 1873—Congress adopts the gold standard

  • No more money than there was gold in the treasury


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • Gold standard reduced amount of money in circulation and farmers were concerned

  • Farm groups wanted money backed by silver, too

  • Alliance members became active in the election of 1890

  • They supported any candidate the agreed with farmers’ position


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • Alliance-backed candidates won more than 40 congressional seats and 4 governorships

  • THE POPULIST PARTY

  • Alliance leaders decided to form a national political party

  • July 1892—Omaha, NE—Populist Party formed


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • Populist Party supported National Grange and Alliance

  • Party platform called for an income tax, bank regulation, government ownership of railroad and telegraph companies, and the free (unlimited) coinage of silver

  • Election of 1892—James Weaver (Pop.) & Benjamin Harrison (R-I) & Grover Cleveland (D)


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • Cleveland won the election

  • Populists won several seats in Congress as well as several state offices

  • THE PANIC OF 1893

  • May 1893—leading railroad fails

  • Investor pulled out of the stock market


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • Thousands of businesses collapsed

  • End of 1893—3 million people were unemployed

  • Strikes and protests swept across the country

  • One reason for panic was the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890

  • Law required government to pay for silver purchases with paper money redeemable in gold or silver


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • This put a huge strain on the gold reserves

  • Congress repealed the act and the USA remained on the gold standard

  • THE ELECTION OF 1896

  • Democrats didn’t want Grover Cleveland to run again because he was unpopular after the Panic of 1893

  • William McKinley (R-OH) vs. William Jennings Bryan (D-NE)


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • Bryan supported the free (unlimited) coinage of silver

  • Because the democrats supported free silver, the Populists also supported the democrats

  • Business leader contributed millions of dollars to Republican McKinley’s campaign

  • McKinley won the election


Ch 15 3 politics in the gilded age

  • Free silver by itself was not important enough to help win a national campaign

  • The Election of 1896 was the high point for the Populist Party, which soon faded away

  • Populist reforms would be enacted by the government over time

  • Many politicians suggest that they support ordinary people, not special interests

  • THE END


  • Login