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The Icelandi c hydrogen society. Hjalmar Arnason Member of the Icelandic Parliament. The background of the project. Iceland possesses no fossil fuels except some peat reservoirs However compared to population Iceland possesses abundant energy resources:

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The icelandi c hydrogen society

The Icelandic hydrogen society

Hjalmar Arnason

Member of the Icelandic Parliament

Icelandic New Energy


The background of the project
The background of the project

  • Iceland possesses no fossil fuels

    • except some peat reservoirs

  • However compared to population Iceland possesses abundant energy resources:

    • The economically harnessable hydroenergy has been estimated at 30 TWh/yr of which only 15% has been harnessed.

    • The harnessable geothermal energy has been estimated at 200 TWh/yr (thermal) (equivalant of 20 TWh/yr electricity), of which 1% has been harnessed.

Icelandic New Energy


Type of energy used in iceland
Type of energy used in Iceland

Icelandic New Energy



Greenhouse gas emission in iceland
Greenhouse gas emission in Iceland

  • Transport 33%

  • Fishing Industry 33%

  • Industry and other 33%

    • In total antropogenic CO2 emission (1995 values) =

      2.640.000 tonn

Icelandic New Energy


Iceland s dilemma
Iceland´s dilemma

  • According to the Kyoto agreement Iceland can increase its emissions by 10% from ´90 levels

  • Iceland has negotiated to

    erect new power intensive

    industries (metals) that

    increase the emissions more than 10%

  • Iceland has not signed the agreement

Icelandic New Energy


Iceland s dilemma cont
Iceland´s dilemma (cont.)

  • All space heating is now geothermal (renewable energy)

  • All electricity production is hydro/geothermal (renewable energy)

  • Only way to reduce emission is by reducing the usage of fossil fuels

Icelandic New Energy


Fuel cells help change the energy basis
Fuel cells help change the energy basis

The Past

The Present

The Future

The transition

is messy

The internal

combus

-

tion

engine led to the

oil industry

Product Performance

The fuel cell may

lead to the methanol /

hydrogen economy

Time

2020

Icelandic New Energy


Using hydrogen methanol vs fossil fuels overall emissions
Using hydrogen/methanol vs fossil fuels, overall emissions

  • By using hydrogen on all vehicles it is possible to reduce Iceland´s overall greenhouse gas emissions 33% (methanol 18%)

  • By including also the fishing fleet reduction of overall emissions can be reduced to, by using:

    • hydrogen 66%

    • methanol 40%

Icelandic New Energy


Hydrogen production in iceland
Hydrogen production in Iceland

  • Currently the production of hydrogen is 2000 tons annually in Iceland

    • the hydrogen is used to produce ammonia for fertilizer production

  • To power the whole

    transport and the

    fishing fleet it would

    require 33000 tons of hydrogen

Icelandic New Energy


Methanol production in iceland
Methanol production in Iceland

  • Metals industries in Iceland (aluminum, ferrosilicon, etc) emitt 618.000 tons of CO and CO2 annually

  • This amount mixed with hydrogen can make 450.000 tons of methanol

  • If these 450.000 tons methanol could replace some 400.000-450.000 tons of fossil fuel which is more than 60% of the total imports, total greenhouse gas emissions from Iceland could be cut 55%

Icelandic New Energy


Methanol production in iceland cont
Methanol production in Iceland (cont.)

  • Methanol production in Iceland is still far from reality, it is an option to be evaluated

  • Some of the participants in the Icelandic venture have concerns regarding using methanol

  • The critical issue is the evaluation of the toxity of methanol

Icelandic New Energy


Hydrogen methanol production in iceland
Hydrogen/methanol production in Iceland

  • If hydrogen would be used directly on fuel cells powering all the vehicle and fishing fleet it would require:

    2,6 TWh/yr*

    *Around 5% of economically harnessable renewable energy in Iceland

  • If methanol would be used instead of hydrogen:

    3,6 TWh/yr

Icelandic New Energy


Icelandic new energy ltd
Icelandic New Energy Ltd.

  • Is a joint-venture company owned by:

    • VistOrku hf (EcoEnergy)*

    • DaimlerChrysler AG

    • Norsk Hydro ASA

    • Shell Hydrogen BV

      *Vistorka (EcoEnergy) is owned by Icelandic New Venture Fund, University of Iceland, IceTech, Fertilizer Plant, Suðurnes Regional Heating Corporation and Reykjavík Energy

Icelandic New Energy


The purpose of the company
The purpose of the company

“Is to set up a joint venture company to investigate the potential for eventually replacing the use of fossil fuels in Iceland with “hydrogen based fuels” and create the world´s first hydrogen economy”

Icelandic New Energy


But why was iceland chosen
But why was Iceland chosen?

  • Iceland has the unique circumstance that you can operate a “hydrogen based fuel project” in a CO2 neutral environment

  • Iceland has similar standards and transportation system as most other developed countries and therefore the results can easily be adapted elsewhere

  • Iceland has experience in converting from one energy source to another

Icelandic New Energy


But why was iceland chosen cont
But why was Iceland chosen? (cont.)

  • It is very important that the project makes a big impact (real-scale project)

  • The new technology needs to be evaluated under severe weather conditions

  • The government of Iceland has announced that it is aiming to transform Iceland into a hydrogen society in the near future

Icelandic New Energy


Transformation of iceland into a hydrogen society
Transformation of Iceland into a hydrogen society

Phase 1.

Demonstration and evalu-

ation project running 3

hydrogen buses in Reykjavík

Phase 2.

Gradual replacement of the Reykjavik city bus fleet and possibly other bus fleets with fuel cell buses

Icelandic New Energy


Transformation of iceland into a hydrogen society cont
Transformation of Iceland into a hydrogen society (cont.)

Phase 3.

Introduction of “hydrogen based” fuel cell cars for private transportation

Phase 4.

Fuel cell vessel demonstration and evalutation project

Phase 5.

Gradual replacement of the present fishing fleet by fuel cell powered vessels

Icelandic New Energy


Historical milestones in the icelandic energy economy
Historical milestones in the Icelandic energy economy

AD 2040

Transformation into hydrogen society completed

Advent of a hydroelectric

hydrogen economy

AD 2000

AD 1940

Geothermal space heating

AD 1900

Hydroelectric energy

AD 1800

Imported liquid fossil fuel

AD 1700

Imported coal and coke

Wood and peat

AD 874

Settlement of Iceland

Icelandic New Energy


Icelandic hydrogen society
Icelandic hydrogen society

In this way transformation of Iceland into a hydrogen economy/society could possibly be completed in the years 2030-2040

Icelandic New Energy


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