Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules
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Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules. Paul De Boeck K.U.Leuven. Examples. Political openness and economic openness Life satisfaction and cost of living Research performance and innovation intensity Socioeconomic status and intolerance. Multi-level governance structure.

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Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

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Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

Paul De Boeck

K.U.Leuven


Examples

Examples

  • Political openness and economic openness

  • Life satisfaction and cost of living

  • Research performance and innovation intensity

  • Socioeconomic status and intolerance


Multi level governance structure

Multi-level governance structure


Link concept operationalisation

Link concept-operationalisation

Political

openness

Participation

Competition

Transparance

Accountability

Rule of law

Interfaces

various aspects

combine subindicies


Implicit theory

Implicit theory

X1 numerical obs

X2 numerical obs

X3numerical obs

X4numerical obs

the thing to be measured

test scoreglobal index


Measurement

“Measurement”

X1 numerical obs

X2 numerical obs

X3numerical obs

X4numerical obs

the thing to be measured

assignment rulee.g., sum, first component score


Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

  • Heavy vs light on meaning


Alternative

Alternative

X1 numerical obs

X2 numerical obs

X3numerical obs

X4numerical obs

Can I explain?Which model can explain?


Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

The data are not meant as a measurement of something, but as to be explained.

For example, responses to inventory items,how can they be explained?Do the correlations between items stem from overlap in the information used to respond?Which information is it?Why not extract the information directly?What is the origin of the information?

When explained with a quantitative theory, then measurement is a by-product


Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

1. Not everything is worth being measured or can be measured, often the data are more interesting than the concept


Assignment of numbers

Assignment of numbers

  • number finding: counts, percentages

  • number asking: ratings

  • number construction: apply a rule on original numbers in order to obtain a derived number


Measurement1

“Measurement”

X1 numerical obs

X2 numerical obs

X3numerical obs

X4numerical obs

the thing to be measured

assignment rulee.g., sum, first component score


Measurement2

Measurement

  • A quantity

  • Increasing or decreasing doesn’t change the nature

  • Addition from two sources is possible

  • Splitting is possible, e.g. in halves


Questions

Questions

  • Why are you interested in the link between the two concepts?Why do you want to measure?Because I want to test a theorydata for the theoryWhy aren’t you interested in the data?and try to explain the data?theory for the data

  • Aren’t your numerical variables of sufficient interest to keep them as they are?


Examples1

Examples

  • Woodworth Personal Schedule 1917 to measure psychological adaptation

    Before, lists of questions were used and one would listen to the responses

  • Hirsch index: the maximum obtained by selecting a number of publications with each at least the same number of citations, e.g., 15 articles with 15 or more citations


Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

  • A strong dimension does not mean the conceptual component is important.It shows there are large individual differences in the component.


Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

2. Psychometric criteria such as reliability and validity are not theory-independent


Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

  • The underlying theory is the simple implicit theory

  • Alternatives- canalization: one behavior has developed into a the dominant one and excludes the other behaviors- behavior competition: the strongest takes it all- negative feedback: showing a behavior makes it less likely to occur next- drop-out: only occasionally it is affected by


Dynamic theories

Dynamic theories


Dynamic theories1

Dynamic theories


Dynamic theories2

Dynamic theories


Reliability

Reliability

Repetition over

  • Situations

  • Behaviors

  • Time


Questions1

Questions

  • Do you have the simple theory for your data that they are a direct and linear reflection of the concept?

  • What is your theory of stability?Stability over?


Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

3. Always reflect on which type of covariation is meant when speaking about the link between two concepts


The case of shame and guilt

The case of shame and guilt

  • Covariation over situationsguilt vs shame is one of two dimensions

  • Covariation over personsguilt & shame define a dimension together with fear and anger

  • Covariation over culturesguilt and shame define their own common dimension


Negative emotions

Negative emotions

  • Fear and anger are positively correlated over persons

  • Fear and anger cannot co-occur because they rely on opposite action tendencies (flight and fight)


Guilt

Guilt

  • Experienced norm violation

  • Self-reproach

  • Tendency to restitute

    Unidimensional in the sense of individual-differences, and they each contribute separately to the probability of feeling guilty


Questions2

Questions

  • Are you interested in individual differences?Are you ready to find traits?

  • Components of?Meaning – semanticIndividual differencesSituational differencesTime differencesProbability of occurence


Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

4. Measurement, reliability, validity, hypothesis testing don’t need to be sequential steps


Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

Hypothesis:

link between concept A and B

  • Step 1: construct a measurement for A, B

  • Step 2: test reliability measurements

  • Step 3: test validity measurements

  • Step 4: test hypothesis


Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

measurement


Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

measurement reliability


Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

validity measurement


Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

measurement hypothesis testing


Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

validity measurement reliability hypothesis testing


Questions3

Questions

  • Do you want to construct a test?

  • ?Meaning – semanticIndividual differencesSituational differencesTime differencesProbability of occurence


Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

5. Always do a PCA


Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

  • PCA tells you about the sources of differences between the row elements

  • PCA tells you whether there is interaction and where it is


Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

  • PCA is a quite robust way to check multidimensionality

  • PCA shows the main interactions in a repeated measures data matrix- unidimensional & equal loadings- unidimensional & unequal positive loadings- unidimensional bipolar- multidimensional


Questions4

Questions

  • Show me your PCA before we continue, especially when complex methods are going to be used, such as SEMs


Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

6. One does not necessarily have to care about the scale of the data


Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

  • Common concern:“what is the scale level?”“are parametric statistics permissible?”

  • Scale level only matters when - numbers are taken for an index of something else, how does the index relate to the “something else”?

  • Transformations are interesting when a simpler and better structure can be found


Representations of relations

Representations of relations

Example

P(Xpi=1)/(1-P(Xpi=1)) = p / i

  • p and i are on a ratio scale,as far as they represent odds ratios


Questions5

Questions

  • Suppose you forget about the scale level and you find an interesting relationship

  • Do you want to generalize over other number assignment procedures?

  • How meaningful are the numerical variables as they are?


Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

7. Don’t construct indices of concepts, unless for descriptive summaries


Problems

Problems

  • The global index depends on the components, and hence, on the definition.

  • Often definitions are arbitrary or they are mainly semantic

  • Perhaps the relationships of the index follow from the relationships of the components


Questions6

Questions

  • What is the definition?

  • What do others say?

  • Aren’t you interested in the components?


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