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Re-Entry and Recidivism. Libby Deschenes, Ph.D. Cal State University, Long Beach Barbara Owen, Ph.D. and Jason Crow Cal State University, Fresno. Increasing Burden on CJS. Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics Correctional Surveys. Drug Offenders Increasing Percentage of Prison Releases.

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Re entry and recidivism

Re-Entry and Recidivism

Libby Deschenes, Ph.D.

Cal State University, Long Beach

Barbara Owen, Ph.D. and

Jason CrowCal State University, Fresno


Increasing burden on cjs
Increasing Burden on CJS

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics Correctional Surveys


Drug offenders increasing percentage of prison releases
Drug Offenders Increasing Percentage of Prison Releases

Source: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/reentry/releases.htm


Increases in recidivism
Increases in Recidivism

Source: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/reentry/recidivism.htm#recidivism


Challenges of re entry
Challenges of Re-entry

  • Serious social and medical problems

    • 75% history drug/alcohol abuse

    • 16% report a mental condition

    • Less than one-third received treatment

  • Few have marketable skills or sufficient literacy to become gainfully employed

    • 33% unemployed at arrest

    • 60% have GED or HS diploma

    • 25% in vocational training programs

    • 33% participated education programs

Source: J. Petersilia (2005) Hard Time: Ex-Offenders Returning Home after Prison


Current research
Current Research

  • Study funded by NIJ using archived data

    • Examines recidivism patterns during 3 years post release

    • Evaluates measures of offense specialization

  • How do incarceration and recidivism of males and females differ?

  • What factors will be important for prisoner re-entry?


Research design
Research Design

  • Secondary data

    • Collected by Bureau of Justice Statistics

  • Three year follow-up of inmates released in 1994

    • Discharged from 15 states

  • Weighted data for all analyses

    • 248,528 males

    • 23,585 females


Data sources for recidivism measures
Data Sources for Recidivism Measures

  • Official FBI and state criminal histories

    • Rearrest

    • Reconviction

    • Resentenced to prison

  • Official criminal history and state DOC

    • Return to prison with or without new sentence


Results
Results

  • Sample characteristics by gender

    • Demographics

    • Criminal history

    • Recidivism

  • Patterns of male and female offending


Comparing demographics by gender
Comparing Demographicsby Gender

  • Females represent 8.7% of total sample

  • Black women (50.5%) more represented than White women (48.5%), in direct contrast with males (Black, 48.3%; White, 50.6%)

  • Hispanic women underrepresented in comparison to males (19.6% versus 25%)

  • Women released later in life than men



Comparing sentences by gender
Comparing Sentencesby Gender

  • Higher proportion of women (79%) incarcerated for property or drug offense than men (65%)

  • Women sentences shorter than malesby 10.3 months, averaging 49.6 months

  • Women served a mean time of 14.2 months, 6.7 months less than the men

  • Women served 30.2% of original sentence, men served 35.7% of original sentence


Comparing criminal history by gender
Comparing Criminal Historyby Gender

  • Similar prior arrest rates (92.8% and 93.2%, respectively)

  • Males more likely to have at least one prior conviction (96.9% to 89.1%)

  • Women less likely to have a prior prison sentence (37.3% vs. 44.2%)


Recidivism for male and female prisoners
Recidivism for Male and Female Prisoners

REARR: Rearrested (recidivated)

RECON: Reconvicted

RENPS: Returned to prison with a new sentence

RPWOW: Returned to prison with or without a new sentence


Violent offense category by recidivism status by gender
Violent Offense Category by Recidivism Status by Gender

REARR: Rearrested (recidivated)

RECON: Reconvicted

RENPS: Returned to prison with a new sentence

RPWOW: Returned to prison with or without a new sentence


Property offense category by recidivism status by gender
Property Offense Category by Recidivism Status by Gender

REARR: Rearrested (recidivated)

RECON: Reconvicted

RENPS: Returned to prison with a new sentence

RPWOW: Returned to prison with or without a new sentence


Drug offense category by recidivism status by gender
Drug Offense Category by Recidivism Status by Gender

REARR: Rearrested (recidivated)

RECON: Reconvicted

RENPS: Returned to prison with a new sentence

RPWOW: Returned to prison with or without a new sentence


Public order offense category by recidivism status by gender
Public-order Offense Category by Recidivism Status by Gender

REARR: Rearrested (recidivated)

RECON: Reconvicted

RENPS: Returned to prison with a new sentence

RPWOW: Returned to prison with or without a new sentence


Other offense category by recidivism status by gender
Other Offense Category by Recidivism Status by Gender

REARR: Rearrested (recidivated)

RECON: Reconvicted

RENPS: Returned to prison with a new sentence

RPWOW: Returned to prison with or without a new sentence





Time to rearrest for females
Time to Rearrest for Females Release

Variables in the Equation

black 273.3hispanic 22.6sentence 144.6age rlse 647.1# priors 2259.9time serve 36.0violent first 41.8 drug first 63.1



Criminal career patterns for females
Criminal Career Patterns Releasefor Females


Career offense types for females
Career Offense Types Releasefor Females


Preliminary findings on female recidivism and specialization
Preliminary Findings on Female Recidivism and Specialization Release

  • Three strongest predictors

    • Number of prior arrests

    • Age at release

    • African-American race

  • Drug and property offenders more likely than violent offenders to be re-arrested

  • High proportion of career offenses same type

    • Over half of property offenders repeat

    • About one third for violent or drug offenses


Policy implications
Policy Implications Release

  • Male violent offenders pose greatest risk

    • Need for community reinvestment initiativesto reverse socioeconomic risk factors

  • Female property and drug offenders highest rates of recidivism

    • Community-based treatment may be more appropriate than prison

    • Re-entry should focus on drug treatment, stable housing, wraparound services


California prisons versus other states
California Prisons Releaseversus Other States

Source: Fischer (2005) UCI Center for Evidence Based Corrections Bulletin 1(1)


California recidivism has different policy implications
California Recidivism Has Different Policy Implications Release

  • Fischer’s analysis controls for background

    • Rearrest not higher in CA compared to FL

    • Reconviction lower in CA compared to NY

  • High rates of technical violations partially explained by fact that nearly all CA prisoners report to parole agents

  • Petersilia (2005) recommends reinstating discretionary parole

  • Austin, Hardyman & Irwin (2002) suggest reducing time on parole to 6 months and require parole board guidelines based on risk and need


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